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双语+MP3|美国学生艺术史71 圆 拱





SUPPOSE you thought the world was going to end next year! Most people in Europe in the Dark Ages thought the world was going to come to an end in 1000 A.D. They weren’t sure just how it would happen. Perhaps it was going to burn up, they thought, or fall apart or blow up with earthquakes and volcanoes. But they felt sure from what they read in the Bible that 1000 A.D. was going to see the end of the world. Important buildings were not built, because what was the use? They’d all be destroyed with the end of the world. 
Then 1000 A.D. came and nothing happened to the world. Still the world was there, and so people found they must have been mistaken. More good buildings began to be built. The light in the darkness of the Dark Ages began to get brighter. 
And now I’ll have to tell you of the new kind of architecture that was used after 1000 A.D. This new kind of architecture is called Romanesque. The easiest way for you to tell that a building is Romanesque is to look at the tops of the windows and doors. If all the windows and doors have round arches for tops, then the building is probably Romanesque. 
People call it Romanesque because it was used in the countries that once belonged to Rome. Just as each of these former Roman countries came to have its own language, descended from Latin, so each country came to have its own Romanesque architecture, descended from Roman architecture. 
The Romanesque architecture of Italy is most like the old basilican kind and so I’ll tell you first about the most famous Italian Romanesque buildings. 
I’m sure you know the tower in this picture. It is the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa. The building next to the tower is the cathedral. 
Every church isn’t a cathedral. A cathedral is a church with a bishop. The chair that the bishop used in his church was called a cathedra. As the bishop’s church always had a cathedra, the bishop’s church was called a cathedral. This was the cathedral of the Bishop of Pisa. 
If you were to look down on a cathedral from an airplane you would see it was built in the shape of a cross. But this cross isn’t a Greek cross, because all the arms are not the same length. A cross with the main stem longer than the other parts is called a Latin cross. Most Romanesque churches were built in the form of a Latin cross. The top of the cross was always pointed toward the east so that the altar in that end of the church could be nearer Palestine in the East, where Christ was born. 
The outside of the cathedral at Pisa is worth looking at, especially if you make believe you are a detective and can see things that most people don’t notice. The rows of columns with arches over them are called arches. A detective would notice at once that all the arches are round arches, and so he could guess the building is probably Romanesque. There are four of these rows of arches or arcades on the west end of this cathedral. 
And here is something I don’t believe you’d notice unless you were a very good detective. Each arcade is a different height. The third arcade from the ground has the tallest columns. The arcade next to the bottom is not quite as tall, the top one is still shorter, and the bottom arcade has the shortest columns of all. A very, very good detective would notice that the middle arch in the two arcades nearest the ground is bigger than the other arches. 
Now look even more closely. A very extra good detective would see that the columns in the two top arcades are not always exactly over the columns below them. 
All these differences were not just accidental. The arcades were built that way on purpose. If all four arcades had been just alike they would have made the whole front of the cathedral look tiresome, monotonous, uninteresting. 
Now if you will look at the Leaning Tower, you can see that all the arcades are just alike. For that reason, the tower isn’t so beautiful as the cathedral. Many people even call the tower ugly. I don’t think it is ugly, but I certainly can’t say it’s as pleasing to look at as the cathedral, though you may find it more interesting on account of the way it leans. The Leaning Tower was built later than the cathedral. Maybe by then the architects had forgotten why the cathedral arcades were not built all alike. 
The tower started leaning almost as soon as it was begun. Before the first story was finished, the foundations on one side were much lower than on the other, so work on the building was stopped. But, after several years, another architect managed to get three more stories built before he had to stop on account of the slant. Still later another architect finished the tower. But some people have said the tower was meant to lean in the first place so it would be different from other towers. 
It is true that each city in Italy was trying to get ahead of every other city with buildings that would attract attention. But most people now believe the foundations sank in soft ground on one side and that the lean of the tower was an accident. The top of it leans about fourteen feet out over the bottom. There are seven bells in the top and the heaviest bell is kept on the side away from the lean to help balance the tower. 
Near the cathedral stands a circular building called the Baptistery of Pisa. The Baptistery was built to baptize the people in. It was changed a great deal in looks after the Romanesque period was over, because later architects thought they could make it look better than it looked at first. 
A good example of a Romanesque building in France is the Cathedral of Angoulême. The front, as you can see in the picture, is decorated with sculpture. Notice the round arches that belong to all Romanesque buildings. 
In England, the Normans who came over with William the Conqueror built many stone churches, cathedrals, and castles. Norman buildings are Romanesque just as much as the French and Italian, but they are usually called Norman buildings instead of Romanesque. Very little of the Norman Romanesque looks now as it did when the Normans built it, because later builders kept adding to it and changing it. Often some parts of an English church are Norman, while later parts of the same church are not Norman style at all. 
Courtesy of The University Prints 
Germany also has some fine Romanesque cathedrals and churches. And they all have arcades and round arches over the windows and doors. And that’s really the big thing to remember about Romanesque buildings—round arches and arcades. 

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