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高中语法专练:v. that, which, who引导限制性定语从句时的用法区别

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2020年05月18日

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v. that, which, who引导限制性定语从句时的用法区别

1. 当先行词是指物的不定代词如all, much, little, everything, nothing, some, any, anything等时,只能用that引导从句,而且在从句中作宾语时常常可省略。

I have told you all that I know.

我已经告诉了你我所知道的一切。

Do you have anything that you want to say for yourself?

你还有什么要为自己说的吗?

There's too much that I have to do today.

今天我必须做的事情太多了。

2. 当先行词是序数词或受序数词修饰时只能用that引导从句。

This is the first question that I want to ask.

这是我想问的第一个问题。

She is the last that I would like to make friends with.

她是我最不想与其交朋友的人。

3. 当先行词是最高级或受最高级修饰时,只能用that引导从句。

This is the most interesting TV play tha t I have watched.

这是我看过的最有趣的电视剧。

4. 当先行词受the very, the only, the right, just the, exactly the, no, none, every之类的词修饰时,只能用that不用which, who, whom引导从句。

This is the very pen (that) I am looking for.

这正是我在寻找的那支笔。

He was the only person that was present at that time.

他是当时唯一在场的人。

There's no book (that) I can read.

没有我能读的书。

5. 先行词是既指人又指物的并列名词短语时,只能用that,不用which引导从句。

The boy and his story that you told me about are very interesting.

你告诉我的有关这个男孩子和他的故事很有意思。

I'll never forget the persons and the places that I visited yesterday.

我永远也忘不了昨天拜访过的人和参观过的地方。

6. 当关系代词在从句中作前置介词的宾语时,用指物的which或指人的whom,而不用that或who引导从句。

This is the book that/which I spoke to you about .

这就是我对你提起过的那本书。

This is the book about which I spoke to you.

这就是我对你提起过的那本书。

Lei Feng was a comrade from whom we all should learn.

雷锋是一位我们都应该向其学习的同志。

7. 当先行词是指人的不定代词everyone, everybody, anyone, anybody, nobody等时,用who,而不用that引导从句。

Is there anyone who can lend me a little money?

有能借给我一点钱的人吗?

It isn't everybody who can do that.

并非每个人都能干这件事。

8. 当先行词是指人的指示代词these, those等时,用who/whom引导定语从句,而不用that。

Those who break the laws must be punished.

那些违法的人必须受到惩罚。

Don't you think these who work hard and obey the rules should be praised?

难道你不觉得学习努力且遵守纪律的这些人应该受到表扬吗?

9. 当先行词是指人的人称代词时,用who引导定语从句,而不用that。

He who plays with fire will get burnt.

玩儿火者必自焚。

10. 当先行词指人,但是在定语从句中是表示职业或身份时,用which而不用who。

After graduating from college, he became a lawyer, which his parents wanted him to be.

大学毕业后,他当了律师。这是他父母希望他从事的职业。

He is a writer, which is respectable.

他是位作家,作家是受人尊敬的。

11. 当指人的关系代词在定语从句中作表语时,用that引导定语从句。

The factory is quite different from the one that is used to be.

这个工厂已与从前完全不同了。

Mr. Smith isn't the person that he was the year before last.

前年史密斯先生可不是这个样子。

12. 当先行词是疑问代词或主句是以who或which开头的特殊疑问句时,为了避免重复用that引导定语从句。

Who is the person that is making the speech on the stage?

正在舞台上发言的人是谁呢?

Which of you that would like to go swimming with me this afternoon?

你们中哪位愿意今天下午和我去游泳呢?

13. 当定语从句在There/Here be句型中时,用that引导定语从句。

Here is the i-Phone 5 that you are looking for.

这就是你在找的i-Phone 5.

There is a seat in the corner that is still empty.

角落里还有一个空位。

14. 如果作先行词的集体名词着眼于集体的整体,关系代词用which;若是指集体中的各个成员,则用who。

Class 4 who are having English lessons now are all league members.

正在上英语课的四班全都是团员。

Our class which is made up of six small groups is a very large class.

我们班是由六个小组构成的大班。

专项练习

1. They talked for about an hour of things and persons _______ they remembered in the school.

A. which

B. that

C. who

D. whom

2. Is there anything _______?

A. that you don't understand

B. which you don't quite sure

C. about which you are not quite sure

D. you are not sure

3. The second question _______ with pollution is the most difficult.

A. which has something to do

B. has something to do

C. that has something to do

D. that has anything to do

4. This is the third week _______ the dustmen haven't come for the rubbish.

A. that

B. when

C. which

D. on which

5. This is the least interesting book _______ during my holidays.

A. which I have ever read

B. what I have ever read

C. I have ever read

D. that I have ever read it

6. The last question _______ was obviously the most difficult for me to answer.

A. which he asked

B. that he was asked it

C. he asked

D. he asked it

7. Along the wall stand several bookshelves _______ are all kinds of books.

A. on that

B. on which

C. which

D. at which

8. I will give your daughter a toy plane _______ she will like to play.

A. which

B. that

C. for which

D. with which

9. In the bag he found a piece of paper _______ some special words.

A. which was written

B. on that were written

C. on which were written

D. on it were written

10. The invention _______ she spent two years will do good to the world.

A. which

B. that

C. on which

D. when

11. All the apples _______ fell down were eaten by the pigs.

A. those

B. that

C. which

D. what

12. Is oxygen the only gas _______ helps fire burn?

A. that

B. /

C. which

D. it

13. I'll tell you _______ he told me last week.

A. all which

B. all what

C. that all

D. all that

14. Did you see the man _______?

A. I nodded just now

B. whom I nodded just now

C. whom I nodded to him

D. whom I nodded to just now

15. —How do you like the book ?

—It's quite different from _______ I read last month.

A. that

B. which

C. the one what

D. the one

16. In the dark street, there wasn't a single person _______ she could turn for help.

A. to whom

B. who

C. from whom

D. that

17. It is the third time _______ arrived late this month.

A. that you

B. when you

C. when you've

D. that you've

18. They arrived at a small house _______ there was an old tree.

A. in front of which

B. in the front of which

C. in which

D. before that

19. Can you tell me the name of the factory _______ you paid a visit last weak?

A. what

B. which

C. to which

D. to that

20. He showed me the house _______ he was born.

A. which

B. in which

C. in where

D. in that

21. We should learn from those _______ are always ready to help others.

A. that

B. whom

C. they

D. who

22. His sister has become a teacher, _______ was what he wanted to be.

A. who

B. what

C. that

D. which

23. Who _______ has common sense will do such a thing?

A. that

B. who

C. which

D. whom

24. He's not the naughty boy _______ you thought him to be.

A. that

B. who

C. whom

D. whose

25. Here's the pen _______ you left behind the other day.

A. which

B. that

C. with which

D. of which

答案速查 1-5 BACAC 6—10 CBDCC 11—15 BADDD 16—20 ADACB 21—25 DDAAA


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