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定语从句讲解:“介词+关系代词”的结构

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2015年06月25日

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  “介词+关系代词”的结构

  1. “介词+ which”在关系分句中分别可作时间、地点和原因状语,代替相应的关系副词when, where和why。如:

  ①I still remember the day on which (= when) I first came to school. 我仍然记得初来学校的那一天。

  ②The factory in which (= where) I work is a large one. 我工作的工厂是一个大厂子。

  2. “介词+ which(指物)/whom(指人)”在关系分句中作地点状语,表示存在关系,关系分句主谓常须倒装。如:

  ①They arrived at a farm house, in front of which sat a small boy. 他们来到一处农舍,前边坐着一个小男孩。

  ②I saw a man, on the head of whom stood a bird. 我看见一个人,他的头上有一只鸟。

  3. “不定代词或数词+ of + which(指物)/whom(指人)”在关系分句中作主语,说明整体中的一部分。如:

  ①China has a lot of islands, one of which is Diaoyu. 中国有许多岛屿,其中之一是钓鱼岛。

  ②There are a lot of students here, none of whom like the film. 这里有许多学生,他们之中无人喜欢这部电影。

  4. “介词+ which(指物)/whom(指人)”在关系分句中作目的、方式或地点状语。如:

  ①Could you tell me for whom you’ve bought this coat? 你能告诉我这件衣服是给谁买的吗?

  ②The man, from whom I learned the news, is an engineer. 这人是一位工程师,我是从他那里得到这个消息的。

  5. “介词+ which(指物)/whom(指人)”用于被动结构的关系分句中,作状语,说明动作的执行者。如:

  ①The wolf by which the sheep was killed was shot. 伤害羊的那只狼被打死了。

  ②The man by whom the wolf was shot was a good hunter. 打死狼的那人是一个好猎手。

  6. “名词+ of which”代替“whose +名词”在关系分句中作定语。如:

  ①I saw some trees, the leaves of which (= whose leaves ) were black with disease. 我看见一些树,它们的叶子因害病而发黑。

  ②He mentioned a book, the title of which (= whose title) I’ve forgotten. 他提到一本书,书名我忘了。

  7. “介词+ which(指物)/whose(指人)”修饰后边的名词。如:

  ①It rained all night and all day, during which time the ship broke into pieces. 雨下了一天一夜,就在这期间轮船撞碎了。

  ②The driver was the man from whose room she had stolen the maps. 司机就是那个男人,她从他的房间偷走地图。

  8. “介词+ which +不定式”。此种用法多见于正文体中,相当于一个带有主语和谓语的定语从句。如:

  She had only 1.87 with which to buy (= she could buy) Jim, her husband, a present. 她只有一元八角七分钱,用这些钱她给丈夫吉姆买一件礼物。分句中分别可作时间、地点和原因状语,代替相应的关系副词when, where和why。如:

  ①The factory in which (= where) I work is a large one. 我工作的工厂是一个大厂子。

  ②This is the reason for which (= why )he was put in prison. 这就是他为什么被关起来的原因。


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