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定语从句讲解:典型高考英语陷阱题

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2015年06月29日

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定语从句讲解:典型高考英语陷阱题:
  1. The factory was built in a secret place, around ______ high mountains.

  A. which was B. it was C. which were D. them were

  【陷阱】容易误选A或B,将A、B中的 which 和 it 误认为是其后句子的主语。

  【分析】最佳答案是C,around which were high mountains 是一个由"介词+which"引出的非限制性定语从句,而在该从句中,主语是 high mountains,around which 是表语,所以句子谓语应用复数were,而不是用单数 was.请做以下类例题目(答案均为C):

  (1) Yesterday we visited a modern hospital, around _______ some fruit shops.

  A. which is B. it is C. which are D. them are

  (2) The murder happened in an old building, beside ______ the city police station.

  A. which are B. it is C. which is D. them are

  (3) Next month we'll move to a new building, next to _______ a nice restaurant where we can have Chinese food.

  A. which are B. it is C. which is D. them are

  2. A man with a bleeding hand hurried in and asked, "Is there a hospital around ______ I can get some medicine for my wounded hand?"

  A. that B. which C. where D. what

  【陷阱】容易误选 B,认为 around 是介词,选 which 用以代替前面的名词 hospital,在此用作介词 around 的宾语。

  【分析】最佳答案为C。以上语法分析并不算错,但问题是,照此分析,此句的意思即为:有没有这样一个医院,我在它的附近可以买药治我的手伤?这样的语境显然有点不合情理,因为人们通常是在医院里面治伤,而不是在医院附近治伤。此题选 C 的理由是:句中的 around 不是介词,而是副词,意为"在附近";其后的 where 引导定语从句用以修饰其前的地点名词 hospital,句意为:附近有没有一家医院,我可以去治我的手伤?

  

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  3. _____ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month.

  A. It B. As C. That D. What

  【陷阱】容易误选 A,认为此处应填一个形式主语。

  【分析】最佳答案是 B。as 引导的是一个非限制性定语从句。比较下面一题:

  _______ is known to everybody that the moon travels round the earth once every month.

  A. It B. As C. That D. What

  此题答案选 A,it 为形式主语,真正的主语是后面的 that 从句。

  再比较下面一组题,其中第(1)题选 B,第(2)题选 D:

  (1) ______ is mentioned above, the number of the students in senior school is increasing.

  A. Which B. As C. That D. It

  (2) ______ is mentioned above that the number of the students in senior school is increasing.

  A. Which B. As C. That D. It

  4. David is such a good boy _______ all the teachers like.

  A. that B. who C. as D. whom

  【陷阱】此题容易误选A,许多同学一看到题干中的such,再联系到选项中的 that,便认为这是考查such ... that ...句式。况且,这样理解意思也还通顺。

  【分析】最佳答案为C,不是A,因为在such ... that ... (如此......以至......)结构中,that 引导的是结果状语从句,并且 that 在从句中不充当句子成分,若在上句填入 such ... that ...,句末的动词 like 缺宾语。选C的理由如下:as 用作关系代词,用以引导定语从句,修饰其前的名词 boy,同时 as 在定语从句中用作动词 like 的宾语,句意为"所有老师都喜欢的一位好男孩"。有的同学可能还会问,假若选A,能否将其后的 that 视为引导定语从句的关系代词呢?不能,因为当先行词受到 such 的修饰时,其后的定语从句应用关系代词 as 来引导,而不用that.比较下面一题,答案为A,因为 like 后有自己的宾语 him:

  David is such a good boy _______ all the teachers like him.

  A. that B. who C. as D. whom

  请再做以下试题(答案选D):

  It was not such a good dinner _______ she had promised us.

  A. like B. that C. which D. as

  

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  5. The buses, most of _______ were already full, were surrounded by an angry crowd.

  A. that B. it C. them D. which

  【陷阱】容易误选 C,用 them 代指 the buses.

  【分析】最佳答案是D。most of which were already full 为非限制性定语从句,修饰 the buses.类似地,以下各题也选D:

  (1) His house, for _______ he paid $10, 000, is now worth $50, 000.

  A. that B. it C. them D. which

  (2) Ashdown forest, through _______ we'll be driving, isn't a forest any longer.

  A. that B. it C. them D. which

  (3) This I did at nine o'clock, after _______ I sat reading the paper.

  A. that B. it C. them D. which

  类似地,以下各题选 whom,不选 them:

  (4) George, with _______ I played tennis on Sundays, was a warm-hearted person.

  A. that B. him C. them D. whom

  (5) Her sons, both of ______ work abroad, will come back home this summer.

  A. that B. who C. them D. whom

  (6) I met the fruit-pickers, several of _______ were still university students.

  A. that B. who C. them D. whom

  6. He had thousands of students, many of ______ gained great success in their own field.

  A. whom B. them C. which D. who

  【陷阱】容易误选 B,用 them 代指 students.

  【分析】最佳答案是A,many of whom gained great success in their own field 为非限制性定语从句。假若在many of... 的前面加上连词and,则选答案B。比较以下各题(答案均选A):

  (1) He asked a lot of questions, none of ______ was easy to answer.

  A. which B. them C. what D. that

  (2) He asked a lot of questions, and none of ______ was easy to answer.

  A. them B. which C. what D. that

  (3) He told me that he had two girl-friends, neither of _______ knew anything about the other.

  A. whom B. them C. which D. who

  (4) He told me that he had two girl-friends, and neither of _______ knew anything about the other.

  A. them B. whom C. which D. who

  

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  7. He had a lot of friends, only a few of ______ invited to his wedding.

  A. whom B. them C. which D. who

  【陷阱】容易误选 A,认为这是非限制性定语从句。

  【分析】最佳答案是B,这不是非限制性定语从句,而是一个独立主格结构,因为空格后的动词 invited 并不是一个完整的谓语,而是一个过去分词。当然,假若在 invited 前加上助动词 were,则是一个非限制性定语从句,答案便应选A.比较:

  (1) They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting, none of _______ carried out in their work.

  A. which B. them C. what D. that

  答案选B,none of them carried out in their work 是独立主格结构,其中的 carried out 为过去分词。

  (2) They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting, none of _______ were carried out in their work.

  A. which B. them C. what D. that

  答案选A,none of them were carried out in their work 是非限制性定语从句,注意与上例比较句中多了一个助动词were.

  (3) They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting, but none of _______ were carried out in their work.

  A. which B. them C. what D. that

  答案选B,由于两句之间增加了一个并列连词but,使得该句成了一个并列句。

  8. On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _______ parents seated together joking.

  A. their B. whose C. which D. that

  【陷阱】容易误选B,认为这是非限制性定语从句。

  【分析】最佳答案是A.与上面一题相似,their parents seated together joking 不是非限制性定语从句,而是一个独立主格结构,因为空格后的动词 seated 不是谓语,而是一个过去分词,因为 seat 作动词用时,是及物动词。比较以下相似题:

  (1) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _______ parents were seated together joking.

  A. their B. whose C. which D. that

  选B.whose parents were seated together joking 为非限制性定语从句,因为其后有完整的谓语 were seated.

  (2) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, and _______ parents were seated together joking.

  A. their B. whose C. which D. that

  选A.因为句中有并列连词and,整个句子为并列句。

  (3) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _______ parents sitting together joking.

  A. their B. whose C. which D. that

  选A.their parents sitting together joking 为独立主格结构。

  (4) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _______ parents sat together joking.

  A. their B. whose C. which D. that

  选B.whose parents sat together joking 为非限制性定语从句,因为句中有完整的谓语 sat.

  (5) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _______ parents were sitting together joking.

  A. their B. whose C. which D. that

  选B.whose parents were sitting together joking 为非限制性定语从句,因为句中有完整的谓语 were sitting.

  

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  9. If the man is only interested in your looks, _____ just shows how shallow he is.

  A. as B. which C. what D. that

  【陷阱】容易误选A或B,误这是非限制性定语从句。

  【分析】正确答案为D,注意逗号前是一个条件状语从句,逗号后是该状语从句的主句,that 在此代表前文所述的情况,用作主句的主语。类似地,下面几道题也选 that,而不选 which:

  (1) If you promise to go with us, _____ will be OK.

  A. as B. which C. and it D. that

  (2) If you want a double room, _____ will cost another £15.

  A. as B. which C. what D. that

  (3) Whether you go or not, _______ is quite all right with me.

  A. that B. which C. and it D. so

  (4) When I say two hours, _____ includes time for eating.

  A. as B. which C. what D. that

  10. She says that she'll never forget the time ________ she's spent working as a secretary in our company.

  A. which B. when C. how D. where

  【陷阱】容易误选B,机械地认为时间名词后必须用关系副词when,地点名词后用关系副词 where.

  【分析】正确答案为A.在时间名词和地点名词后是否用关系副词要看它在定语从句中充当什么句子成分。一般说来,若用作主语或宾语,用关系代词;若用作状语,则用关系副词。上面一题中的动词 spent 缺宾语,故应用关系代词 which或that.比较下面一题,由于空格后的句子不缺少主语或宾语,所以选关系副词when:

  She says that she'll never forget the time ________ she works as a secretary in our company.

  A. which B. when C. how D. where

  请再做一组试题(答案均选A):

  (1) Our company will move to a tall building _______ we bought last month.

  A. which B. when C. how D. where

  选A,which 在定语从句中用作动词 bought 的宾语。

  (2) Our company will move to a tall building _______ has just been complete.

  A. which B. when C. how D. where

  选A,which 在定语从句中用作主语。

  (3) Our company will move to a tall building _______ we worked two years ago.

  A. where B. when C. that D. which

  选A,where 在定语从句中用作状语。


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