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定语从句讲解:从句缺主语时,引导词都可以用什么

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2015年07月20日

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  定语从句讲解:从句缺主语时,引导词都可以用什么,which 和that 在什么时候可以互换,什么时候不 定语从句从句缺主语时,引导词都可以用什么,which

  和that 在什么时候可以互换,什么时候不可以

  1.当先行词是everything, anything, nothing (something 除外), all, none, few, little, some等代词时,或当先行词受every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much等代词修饰时。如:

  Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li said? 李老师讲的你都记下来了吗?

  There seems to be nothing that is impossible to him in the world. 对他来说似乎世界上没有什么不可能的事。

  All that can be done has been done. 所有能做的都做好了。

  There is little that I can do for you. 我不能为你干什么。

  He stayed in the library and looked up any information that they needed. 他呆在图书馆查找所需的资料。

  注意:当先行词指人时,偶尔也可用关系代词who,如:

  Any man that / who has a sense of duty won’t do such a thing. 任何有责任感的人都不会做这样的事。

  All the guests that / who were invited to her wedding were important people. 所有应邀来参加她婚礼的客人都是重要人物。

  2.当先行词被序数词修饰时。如:

  The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben. 在伦敦他们参观的第一个地方是大本钟。

  3.当先行词被形容词最高级修饰时。如:

  This is the best film that I have ever seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影。

  4.当先行词被the very, the only修饰时。如:

  This is the very dictionary that I want to buy. 这正是我要买的词典。

  After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owns. 家里发生了火灾过后,那辆旧车成了他的唯一拥有。注意:当先行词指人时,偶尔也可用关系代词who。如:

  Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting. 王华是我校唯一出席会议的人。

  5.当先行词前面有who, which等疑问代词时。如:

  Who is the man that is standing by the gate? 站在门口的那个人是谁?

  Which is the T-shirt that fits me most? 哪件T恤衫最合我的身?

  6.当先行词为人与动物或人与物时。如:

  They talked about the persons and things that they remembered at school 他们谈论着他们所能记起的在校时的人和事。

  Look at the man and his donkey that are walking up the street. 瞧瞧那个沿街走来的人和他的毛驴

  Which引导的定语从句在语法和语用功能有利于区别于that引导的定语从句的鲜明特色。

  一、语法要点。

  ①有宽阔的指代范围。不仅可措代主句中某一先行词___名词(A),还可以指代主句中某些句子成分,如不定式宾补,不定式宾语,动宾结构等(B),甚至整个主句

  (C)。后两项功能是that所没有的。

  (A)The computer which(=that) I bought yesterday is home made.

  (B)Yesterday I asked him to go to the cinema with me, which agreed(昨天我要他同我一道去看电影,他同意了)。

  He wishes to get quick rich without any labour, which we think only Wishful thinking (他想不劳而获,迅速致富,我们认为这是想入非非)。

  (C)The sun heats the earth,Which is very important to living things(太阳晒热地球,这对于万物是十分重要的)。

  ②非限定性定语从句中,无论主语还是宾语,关系代词用which不用that;即使which作宾语也不省去。

  Football, which is very interesting, is played all over the world.

  I never give up learning foreign languages. Which I fink to de a bridged to the world(我从没有放弃过外语学习,因为我发现外语是通向世界的桥梁)。

  (比较下一句关系代词作宾语可省去的限定性定语从句。二者在这一点上的区别一目了然:It is the computer (that /which) I bought last week.)

  ③“介词+关系代词”引导定语从句有一下四点值得注意。

  A:当介词前置时,关系代词用which而非that;而且which不省去。

  The pencil with he was writing broke.

  无The pencil with that he was writing broke;也无The pencil with he was writing broke.

  (注:当介词后置于定语从句动词后面,并且从句是定性的,关系代词which, that可互换,能省略。This is the room which/that the great man once worked in.)

  B:先行词表示时间,定语从句可用关系副词(when;先行词表示地点,定语从句可用关系副词where:

  We’ll never forget the day on which (-when )we visited the Great wall.

  They went to the village where(-at which )the oil well was located定位)。

  C:此结构再延伸,出现“名词/代词+of/among+关系代词”的格局,名词又有数量意义,如“许多,一些,大部分,20个等”,则整个短语译作“其中许多;其中一些…”:

  On the crowded bus were school children, many of whom were from Beijing.

  也可以把名词/代词称到关系代词后面,整个短语的功能不变:

  He borrowed from the library novels and magazines, among which some are in English.

  D:此延伸结构若是“名词+介词of+关系代词”的格局,名词无数量意义,则同于whose+名词:

  He lives in the house the doors of which face the south,=He lives in the house whose doors face the south.

  二、语用功能。

  Which定语从句(尤其是非限定性的)主要还是在语用功能上呈现that定语从句所没有的亮点。

  ①表达主从句因果关系。

  A Jew. Albert Einstein had to flee Germany. Which then was ruled by Hitler(爱因斯坦只得逃离德国,因为当时的德国是在希特勒的统治之下)。

  NMET’99:Cory Luxmoore arrived from England to deliver the diary of his ancester to the Library Company,____he and his wife considered to be the best home for the diary (Cory Luxmoore(千里迢迢)从英国赶来把祖先的日记交给(费城)图收馆公司,是因为他和妻子认为该图书馆才是此日记最好的归宿处)。

  ②表达主从句目的关系。

  The Southern States set up a separate state of their own, in which they would be free to keep Negroes as slaves(南方各州却反叛建立一个独立王国,以便好继续维持奴隶制度)。

  ③表达主从句让步关系。

  Einstein, who could have been very rich, cared for little money(爱因斯坦原本可以是非常富有的,但他却不爱钱)。

  He gave up his cause in which he had been very successful and joined in our project(他的事业尽管干得很出色,他还是放弃了,加入到我们的课题研究中来)。

  ④表达主句动作产生的结果。

  ⑤表示主从句条件关系。

  ⑥表示主从句时间关系。

  ⑦对主句内容作补充说明。


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