主要有for all this, in spite of, despite, nevertheless(尽管如此,然而), even though, although, nonetheless(尽管如此), regardless of(不管), but, though, whereas(用以比较或对比两个事实,表示"然而"), however, even so等。例如:
1. Defeat was obvious; even so, the players continued to try their best to win. 尽管已很明显落败了,但队员们仍全力以赴。
2. In spite of all his efforts he failed. 尽管他很努力,他仍旧失败了。
3. Some of the studies show positive results, whereas others do not. 一些研究显示了肯定的结果,而另一些却不然。
4. He’s charming; nevertheless, I don’t quite trust him. 尽管他很迷人,可是我却不十分信任他。
主要有generally speaking, in general, in brief(简言之,总而言之), in short, in summary, in conclusion, in essence, in other words, to sum up, to summarize, all in all(从各方面考虑,总的说来), by and large(总体上), boil down to sth(归结为……), on the whole, as has been noted, as we have seen, as mentioned earlier等。例如:
1. In brief, you realized your aims. 总而言之,你实现了你的目标。
2. All in all, it had been a great success. 总的说来,那是个巨大的成功。
3. By and large, I enjoyed my time at school. 总的说来,我在学校很开心。
4. In the end, what it all boils down to is money, or the lack of it. 问题的症结是钱,或者说是缺钱。
on the contrary furthermore therefore in short
1. We were tired and hungry, and ______ eager to reach our destination as soon as possible.
2. When a student challenged his theory, the professor was not displeased as we expected; _______, he encouraged us to think independently.
3. That play is depressing. The plot is weird and the characterization is poor. _______, it is a failure.
1. therefore。句意:我们又累又饿,因此急于尽可能快地到达目的地。分析:本句的前半部分"We were tired and hungry"是后半部分"eager to reach our destination as soon as possible"的原因,因此空格部分需要一个表示因果关系的过渡词语,故选therefore,意为"因此(for that reason)"。
2. on the contrary。句意:当学生挑战这位教授的理论时,他并没有像我们预想的那样不高兴,相反他还鼓励我们要独立思考。分析:空格后"he encouraged us to think independently"表达的是与空格前"the professor was not displeased as we expected"相对比的一种相反的情况,故选on the contrary(恰恰相反)。