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动词不定式、动名词用法要点讲解

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  ⒊动名词的时态、语态

  (1)时态

  ①一般式:动名词的一般式所表示的动作可以是泛指,也可与谓语动词同时发生,或发生在谓语动作之前 、之后。如:

  We are interested in collecting stamps.

  I shall never forget seeing the Great Wall for the firsttime.

  We are not afraid of dying.

  ②完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词之前。如:

  Lmagine having travelled on the moon.

  We were praised for having finished the work ahead of time.

  (2)被动语态

  ①如果动名词的逻辑主语为动名词所表示的动作的承受者,动名词要用被动语态,动名词的被动语态有一 般式与完成式之分。如:

  The young man came in without being noticed.

  He prided himself on having never been beaten in class.

  ②有些动词后的动名词用主动形式,但表示被动意义。如:

  The bike needs repairing.

  If a thing is worth doing, it is worth doing well.

  ⒋在口语中,为避免重复,常用"to"代替不定式结构,有时甚至可以把to省略。如:

  ①—Did you go to visit the Great Wall?

  —No,I wanted to,but there wasn't enough time.

  ②—Would you like to come to a party?

  —I'd love to.

  ③—Don't make any mistakes in your homework,will you?

  —I'll try not to.

  ④—Try to be back by 12,won't you?

  —OK,I'll try.

  另外,be going to,ought to,used to等也常用于这一结构中。

  ⒌在why引起的问句中,省略"to"。如:

  Why spend such a lot of money?

  Why not wait for a couple of days?

  ⒍当两个或更多作用相同的不定式并列使用时,只在第一个不定式前加"to"。如:

  It's quite necessary for us to read more and have morepractice.

  ⒎"to"在下列短语中是“介词”,后接动名词或名词形式。如:

  devote…to,face up to(勇敢地面对),look forward to(盼望),object to(反对),take to(养 成习惯,对……感兴趣;开始从

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