Part ⅠWriting(30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic: AidEducation in China. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given in Chinese below:
Aid--Education in China
Part ⅡReading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)(15 minutes)
Directions:In this part,you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7,mark
Y(for YES)if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
N(for NO)if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
NG(for NOT GIVEN)if the information is not given in the passage.
For questions 8-10,complete the sentences with information given in the passage.
Will We Run Out of Water?
Picture a “ghost ship” sinking into the sand, left to rot on dry land by a receding sea. Then imagine dust storms sweeping up toxic pesticides and chemical fertilizers from the dry seabed and spewing them across towns and villages.
Seem like a scene from a movie about the end of the world? For people living near the Aral sea (咸海) in Central Asia, it’s all too real. Thirty years ago, government planners diverted the rivers that flow into the sea in order to irrigate (provide water for ) farmland. As a result, the sea has shrunk to half its original size, stranding (使搁浅) ships on dry land. The seawater has tripled in salt content and become polluted, killing all 24 native species of fish.
Similar large--scale efforts to redirect water in other parts of the world have also ended in ecological crisis, according to numerous environmental groups. But many countries continue to build massive dams and irrigation systems, even though such projects can create more problems than they fix. Why? People in many parts of the world are desperate for water, and more people will need more water in the next century.
“Growing populations will worsen problems with water,” says Peter H.Gleick, an environmental scientist at the Pacific Institute for studies in Development, Environment, and Security, a research organization in California. He fears that by the year 2025, as many as one--third of the world’s projected (预测的) 8.3 billion people will suffer from water shortages.
WHERE WATER GOES
Only 2.5 percent of all water on Earth is freshwater, water suitable for drinking and growing food, says Sandra Postel, director of the Global Water Policy Project in Amherst, Mass. Two--thirds of this freshwater is locked in glaciers (冰山) and ice caps （冰盖）. In fact, only a tiny percentage of freshwater is part of the water cycle, in which water evaporates and rises into the atmosphere, then condenses and falls back to Earth as precipitation (rain or snow).
Some precipitation runs off land to lakes and oceans, and some becomes groundwater, water that seeps into the earth. Much of this renewable freshwater ends up in remote places like the Amazon river basin in Brazil, where few people live. In fact, the world’s population has access to only 12,500 cubic kilometers of freshwater—about the amount of water in Lake Superior(苏必利尔湖). And people use half of this amount already. “If water demand continues to climb rapidly,” says Postel, “there will be severe shortages and damage to the aquatic (水的) environment.”