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To most of the world,Texas is known as a big state in southernAmerica.


But to Norwegians, it is also a word that frequently crops up ineveryday conversation - often in the phrase "Der var helttexas!" [That was very completely/totally texas!].

但是,对挪威人而言,它也是日常交谈时常说的一个词,经常是这样说的“Der var helt texas!”(这实在是太疯狂了!)

The word is slang for "crazy" or "wild" and is used to refer to a chaotic atmosphere, TexasMonthly first reported.


It became part of the language when Norwegians started watching cowboy movies and readingWestern literature, according to Daniel Gusfre Ims, the head of the advisory service at theLanguage Council of Norway.


"The genre was extremely popular inNorway, and a lot of it featuredTexas, so the word became asymbol of something lawless and without control," he says.


Its first usage dates back to 1957, when it appeared in a novel by Vegard Vigerust called The Boywho wanted to buy Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. The author writes "he would make iteven more texas in the village?".

1957年,挪威小说家维吉尔斯特在《男孩》(The Boy )一书中首次使用了这个词,书中的男孩想要买下挪威广播公司,他在书中写道,“他会把整个村弄得更加“texas”吗?”。

Nowadays, the word is widespread all overNorway. It's frequently used in the phrase "helt texas" [completely crazy], which has appeared in Norwegian newspapers 50 times this year, he says.

现在,这个词在挪威各地广泛使用。它常见于短语“helt texas(完全疯狂)”中,埃米斯表示,今年这个词已经在挪威的报纸上出现50余次了。

It's often used negatively, but not always. "It could be a party out of control, a class out ofcontrol, or traffic. It could also be used by someone who had sold many products," he says.


Gusfre Ims says this language phenomenon - metonymy, where a thing or concept is called notby its own name, but by another name which is associated with it - is pretty common in Norway,and language generally.


Norwegians also use the term "hawaiifootball" to describe an "out-of-control" match, he says. Theword "klondike", a region inCanadaassociated with the gold rush, is used to describe economicexpansion, and also has a hint of something going out of control.

埃米斯表示,挪威人还用“夏威夷美式足球(hawaii football)”表示一场失控的比赛。“克朗代克(klondike)”原指加拿大以淘金热闻名的地区,而现在,挪威人用它来描述经济蓬勃发展,或是有一点点失控。

He also points to terms such as "Armageddon" and "champagne".

埃米斯还谈到一些词汇,如“末日审判(Armageddon)” “香槟(champagne)”。

"People don't mean the place in the Bible, or the area inFrance," he says.


Erin McKean, the founder of the online dictionary Wordnik, agrees that words are often adoptedinto language in this way.


"I'm not surprised Norwegians would use this kind of geography to convey a quality. This is howwe make language - emphasing one aspect of the word, or using metaphors," she says.


McKean says there are plenty of examples of the English language using perceived characteristicsof people from other places, which is a common occurrence with neighbouring countries.


"Dutch courage is associated with having to drink to be courageous. A Dutch treat [when peoplepay for their own share of an expense] isn't exactly a treat. We talk about taking French leave, oran Irish goodbye.

“荷兰人的勇气(Dutch courage)”与喝酒壮胆有关,而“荷兰人请客(a Dutch treat)”真正指的不是一顿免费大餐,而是各付己帐。还有,我们会用French leave或an Irish goodbye表示不辞而别。

"The closest thing to we probably have to 'texas' inAmericais berserk from the Norse warriors, butthat's apparently Icelandic, although disputed," she says.


McKean says people tend to take these expressions with a pinch of salt.


"I think Americans think the Norwegian texas thing is quite funny. Texans like to think ofthemselves as larger than life and extreme in some way - and it's a short hop from extreme tocrazy," she says.


Anne Ekern, of the Norwegian consulate inHouston, agrees.


"The reactions we have had, have been on the positive side," she says.


But Gusfre Ims wants to reassure any Texans in doubt.


"What Norwegians think aboutTexashas nothing to do with the expression. We knowTexasis not alawless society. It's just a fixed phrase," he says.



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