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托福阅读文化类词汇汇总

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homogeneous 同质的 homo + gene +ous(<> heterogeneous)^ homosexual, heterosexual

mainstream 主流 主流的

dialect 方言 (v.s. accent)

discrepancy 差异

misconception 误解 (mis + concept + ion)= misunderstanding

barrier 障碍(物)~ bar, = barricade

discrimination 区别,歧视racial/sexual discrimination discriminate (+against)

hierarchy 等级制度heir + arch(govern) + y

insularity 岛国性质 ( insular, ^island)British industry has often been criticized for its linguistic insularity.

microcosm 小天地 micro + cosm(os)

nostalgia = homesickness

patriot 爱国者 (<> traitor)à patriotic, patriotism

compatriot 同胞 同胞的com + patriot

vernacular 本地的,本国的 本地话,本国话the vernacular languages of India

Hispanic An American whose first language was Spanish

immigration 移入~ immigrant, immigratev.s. emigration (~ emigrant, emigrate)

antipodes Any two places or regions on diametrically opposite sides of the Earth“from North America to the Antipodes”

permeate 渗透,弥漫Smoke permeated the house.

entrepreneur 企业家 (~ enterprise)à entrepreneurship

practitioner 开业者,从业者praction(practice) + er

celebrity a famous person= luminary, VIP

proxy 代理人

anecdote 轶事 (à anecdotal)

notoriety 恶名 ( notorious)

counterpart 对应人,对等物Who’s George Bush’s counterpart in China?^ counterculture, counterbalance

peer 同等的人 凝视,窥视(~ peep)

subordinate 下级 下级的<> superior

tactics 战术,技巧v.s. strategy (战略,策略)marketing strategy v.s. selling tactics

nuance a subtle difference in meaning

benchmarking 类比分析

punctual 准时的,守时的 (à punctuality)

absenteeism 旷工absent à absentee à absenteeism

flextime 弹性工作时间flex(flexible) + time

harass 骚扰 (à harassment)Mary said that Gary had sexually harassed her.

redundancy 冗余,冗员network redundancy

downsize 裁员 (~ lay off)

ballot 投票 (= vote)

impartial 不偏不倚的 (<> partial)

lobby 大堂(n.) 游说(v.)

shortlist (BE) a list of applicants who have been deemed suitable and from which the successful person will be chosen à (v.)

equilibrium 平衡,均衡

questionnaire 调查表,问卷

quantitative 定量的 (<> qualitative)

contingency 偶然性,偶然事件

incur 招致incur debts/hatred/dangerv.s. occur, concur, recur

ethical 伦理的,符合伦理的~ ethics, <> unethical

dubious 疑惑的,可疑的 (~ doubt)People were dubious about the result.

manifestation 显示,证明 ( manifest)

subtitle 字幕,副标题 (sub + title)^ subsidiary, submarine, subway (BE: underground, tube), suburb(~ downtown, uptown, outskirts)

dubbing 配音录制

vogue 时尚 ^ chic

bizarre 奇异的v.s. weird (怪异的)

mediocre 平庸的

dietitian 饮食学家 (~ diet)

connoisseur 行家,鉴赏家^ entrée, a la carte


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