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新概念英语第三册(美音版)A noble gangster

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Lesson 14
A noble gangster
贵族歹徒

Listen to the tape then answer the question below.
听录音,然后回答以下问题。
How did Haywood make in times of peace?
There was a tine when the owners of shops and businesses in Chicago that to pay large sums of money to gangsters in return for 'protection.' If the money was not paid promptly, the gangsters would quickly put a man out of business by destroying his shop. Obtaining 'protection money' is not a modern crime. As long ago as the fourteenth century, an Englishman, Sir John Hawkwood, made the remarkable discovery that people would rather pay large sums of money than have their life work destroyed by gangsters.
Six hundred years ago, Sir Johan Hawkwood arrived in Italy with a band of soldiers and settled near Florence. He soon made a name for himself and came to be known to the Italians as Giovanni Acuto. Whenever the Italian city-states were at war with each other, Hawkwood used to hire his soldiers to princes who were willing to pay the high price he demanded. In times of peace, when business was bad, Hawkwood and his men would march into a city-state and, after burning down a few farms, would offer to go away protection money was paid to them. Hawkwood made large sums of money in this way. In spite of this, the Italians regarded him as a sort of hero. When he died at the age of eighty, the Florentines gave him a state funeral and had a pictured with as dedicated to the memory of 'the most valiant soldier and most notable leader, Signor Giovanni Haukodue.'

New words and expressions 生词和短语
gangster
n. 歹徒,强盗
Chicago
n. 芝加哥(美国城市)
protection
n. 保护
promptly
adv. 准时地
destroy
v. 毁掉;消灭
remarkable
adj. 不寻常的
hand
n. 帮,团伙
Florence
n. 佛罗伦萨(意大利城市)
city-state
n. (古代)城邦
hire
v. 租出,雇给
prince
n. 君主,诸候
Florentine
n. 佛罗伦萨人
funeral
n. 葬礼
dedicate
v. 奉献,题献给
memory
n. 纪念
valiant
adj. 英勇的

曾经有一个时期,芝加哥的店主和商行的老板们不得不拿出大笔的钱给歹徒以换取"保护"。如果交款不及时,歹徒们就会很快捣毁他的商店,让他破产.榨取"保 护金"并不是一种现代的罪恶行径.早在14世纪,英国人约翰.霍克伍德就有过非凡的发现:"人们情愿拿出大笔的钱,也不愿毕生的心血毁于歹徒之手. 600年前,约翰.霍克伍德爵士带着一队士兵来到意大利,在佛罗伦萨附近驻扎下来,很快就出了名.意大利人叫他乔凡尼.阿库托.每次意大利各城邦之间打 伏,霍克伍德把他的士兵雇佣给愿给他出高价的君主。和平时期,当生意萧条时,霍克伍德便带领士兵进入某个城邦,纵火烧毁一两个农场,然后提出,如向他们缴 纳保护金,他们便主动撤离。霍克伍德用这种方法挣了大笔钱.尽管如此,意大利人还是把他视作某种英雄。他80岁那年死去时,佛罗伦萨人为他举行了国葬,并 为他画像以纪念这位"骁勇无比的战士、杰出的领袖乔凡尼.阿库托先生."

★gangster
n. 歹徒,强盗
a band of gangsters 一伙强盗
robber 抢劫犯,抢劫者;bandit强盗,土匪
brigand 强盗,土匪,盗贼,草寇;书面用语
hooligan 流氓,不良分子
hoodlum 罪犯,恶汉;口语
rascal 淘气,捣蛋鬼;口语

★Chicago
n. 芝加哥(美国城市)

★protection
n. 保护
protection money 保护费
protect v.: protect from
We must protect our eyes from the sunshine.
protective adj. 保护的
protector n. 保护者
protege n. 被保护者

★promptly
adv. 准时地
I give him a ring and he call me back promptly
He was so sleepy that he went to sleep promptly.
on time 准时/in time 及时
punctually adv. 守时地

★destroy
v. 毁掉;消灭
destroy n. 强盗毁灭,消灭,完全的摧毁
The earthquake destroyed the city./You destroyed his dream.
damage n. v.强调受损程度不很严重,可以被修复
The big clock was damaged.
break v.n. 强调弄坏,弄断
Two of the strings were broken.
spoil v. 强调把事情搅和了
spoil the party; spoil the holiday

★remarkable
adj. 不寻常的
remarkable adj.: unusual; uncommon; extraordinary
a remarkable event 不同寻常的事件;an extraordinary event
outstanding adj.突出的,杰出的,卓越的
Our headmaster is an outstanding youth.
distinguished adj. 杰出的,卓越的,不同非凡的
eminent adj. 显赫的,杰出的,有名的,优良的
a distinguished physicist; an eminent surgeon; an eminent judge
a distinguished layer
well-known adj. 强调众所周知的
famous adj. 因卓越的贡献和成绩而流芳百世的
She is well-known in the musical world/This is well-known fact.
He is a famous moviestar./ Luxun is famous for his articles.
notorious adj. 臭明昭著的,臭名远扬的;be famous for bad things
Hitler is notorious.
infamous adj. 身名狼藉的
renowned adj. 某人或某事以其独特的品质、个性而闻名
Hangzhou is renowned for...

★hand
n. 帮,团伙
a band of robbers 一伙强盗
mob n. 表示贬义色彩的团伙、帮派;a mob of hooligans 一伙流氓
gang n. 一伙;a gang of thieves
nest n. 窝;a nest of bandits
pack n. 团伙、帮派;a pack of hoodlums

★Florence
n. 佛罗伦萨(意大利城市)

★city-state
n. (古代)城邦

★hire
v. 租出,雇给
hire;rent;let;employ
hire out; rent out 租给
Does this firm hire out cars?
rent out 租给,雇给;主要强调出租房屋
He rent out his house to a tourist.
let 出租房屋;let his house/Please let your house to me.
hire from; rent hrom 租进来
He hired a car from us/ I rent a room from Mrs.Johnson.
hire 指短期雇佣体力劳动者
employ 指长期雇佣或聘用脑力劳动者
We employed her as our advisor.
The factory employed 500 workers.
He hired two helpers

★prince
n. 君主,诸候

★Florentine
n. 佛罗伦萨人

★funeral
n. 葬礼

★dedicate
v. 奉献,题献给
dedicate to
He dedicated his first book to his mother
dedicate 献身,奉献;比devote更为正式而庄重
I devote my time to helping my students.
He dedicates his life to his motherland.
He dedicated his life to science.

★memory
n. 纪念
You have agood memory
in memory of/to the memory of
If my memory serves me well,you're Tom.
★valiant
adj. 英勇的
brave adj. 勇敢的
The boy is brave.
During war,soldiers are valiant.
fearless adj. 大无畏的,无所畏惧的
We are fearless in time of danger.
courageous adj. 有胆量的,有勇气的

pay large sums of money to sb. 向某人付大笔大笔的费用
in return for 目的是为了换取----作为对……的回报
Eg.: He gave me some books in return for my help.
when 引导状语从句修饰time
There was a time when mini skirt was in fashion.

promptly: immediately
put a man out of business: 使某人失业
put sb./sth.out of...使某人失去……
Eg.: You are putting me out of patience.
Eg.: You have already put everything out of order.

put it out of your mind 忘记这件事情吧
by destroying his shop 通过……手段
Eg.: You are putting me out of patience by disturbing me.

obtaining...
obtaining: getting

as long ago as 追溯回到; dating back to
Eg.: I knew Jane as long ago as the year 1980.

John Hawkwood's discovery was quite remarkable
make the remarkable discovery 做出不同寻常的发现
would rather ...than...宁愿而不
Eg.: He would rather die than surrender.
Eg.: I would rather play tennis than swim.

would prefer to do ... than do...
would prefer doing ... to doing...
Eg.: He would prefer to die than surrender.
Eg.: He would prefer dying to surrendering.

would rather: sooner+ that 宾语从句(过去式)
Eg.: I would rather that you were not here.
Eg.: I would rather that I didn't see you.
Eg.: He would rather that he didn't hear the news.
life work 毕生的事业
Eg.: I want to have the tree cut down.

Six hundred years ago...
settled near Florence 定居在 Florence 附近

made a name for himself: become famous
Eg.: They soon made quite a name for themselves as pop singers.

come to/get to 渐渐的
come to be known 渐渐被人所熟知
Eg.: I come to be known to my students.
Eg.: I got to know him

whenever 无论什么时候
at war 交战; at war with 于……交战

hire 表示出租
who 指代prince
he demanded: Hawkwood demanded

in time of peace 在和平期间

march into 大踏步行军
burn down 烧毁/burn up 烧光/burn out 烧空
would offer to go away: would promise to go away
The house was burned out only...

in spite of this 尽管如此
People in different countries have different opinions.
Eg.: the Italians regarded him as a sort of hero.

give sb.a state funeral 给某人举行国葬
have sth.done
Signor 意大利语,先生
which 指代picture
be dedicated to the memory of sb.
the most valiant 比较级的最高级形式

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(1)...b...
premises: 房产
  unharmed替代原文的destroy

(2)...b...
他获取自己的名字是依据自己的所作所为

(3)...a...
in that=because "因为",表示一种原因

(4)...a...
段时间——for a long time(现在完成式)

(5)...c...
prefer doing + to + 动名词

(6)...b...
hire: 从某人租得某物

(7)...a...
if not: 如果不=unless
provided---条件是...

(8)...c...
介词on和名词death相搭配,表示去世的状态
介词on和动名词搭配,表示一个动作。"一...就..."
 on seeing him,I ran away.

(9)...b...
动词的过去分词

(10)..d...
prepared: 心甘情愿的(=willing)
  be willing to do,be prepared to do
agreeable: 宜人的,惬意的
  desirable: 吸引人的(=attractive)

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