Too early and too late
Listen to the tape then answer the question below.
Why did the young girl miss the train?
Punctuality is a necessary habit in all public affairs in civilized society. Without it, nothing could ever be brought to a conclusion; everything would be in state of chaos. Only in a sparsely-populated rural community is it possible to disregard it. In ordinary living, there can be some tolerance of unpunctuality. The intellectual, who is working on some abstruse problem, has everything coordinated and organized for the matter in hand. He is therefore forgiven if late for a dinner party. But people are often reproached for unpunctuality when their only fault is cutting things fine. It is hard for energetic, quick-minded people to waste time, so they are often tempted to finish a job before setting out to keep an appointment. If no accidents occur on the way, like punctured tires, diversions of traffic, sudden descent of fog, they will be on time. They are often more industrious, useful citizens than those who are never late. The over-punctual can be as much a trial to others as the unpunctual. The guest who arrives half an hour too soon is the greatest nuisance. Some friends of my family had this irritating habit. The only thing to do was ask them to come half an hour later than the other guests. Then they arrived just when we wanted them.
If you are citing a train, it is always better to be comfortably early than even a fraction of a minted too late. Although being early may mean wasting a little time, this will be less than if you miss the train and have to wait an hour or more for the next one; and you avoid the frustration of arriving at the very moment when the train is drawing out of the station and being unable to get on it. An even harder situation is to be on the platform in good time for a train and still to see it go off without you. Such an experience befell a certain young girl the first time she was traveling alone.
She entered the station twenty minutes before the train was due, since her parents had impressed upon her that it would be unforgivable to miss it and cause the friends with whom she was going to stay to make two journeys to meet her. She gave her luggage to a porter and showed him her ticket. To her horror he said that she was two hours too soon. She felt inhere handbag for the piece of paper on which her father had written down al the details of the journey and gave it to the porter. He agreed that a train did come into the station at the time on the paper and that it did stop, but only to take on mail, not passengers. The girl asked to see a timetable, feeling sure that her father could not have made such a mistake. The porter went to fetch one and arrive back with the station master, who produced it with a flourish and pointed out a microscopic 'o' beside the time of the arrival of the train at his station; this little 'o' indicated that the train only stopped for mail. Just as that moment the train came into the station. The girl, tears streaming down her face, begged to be allowed to slip into the guard's van. But the station master was adamant: rules could not be broken and she had to watch that train disappear towards her destination while she was left behind.
New words and expressions 生词和短语
准时是文明社会中进行一切社交活动时必须养成的习惯。不准时将一事无成，事事都会陷入混乱不堪的境地。只有在人口稀少的农村，才可以忽视准时的习惯。在日常生活中人们可以容忍一定程度的不准时。一个专心钻研某个复杂问题的知识分子，为了搞好手头的研究，要把一切都协调一致，组织周密。因此，他要是赴宴迟到了会得到谅解。但有些人不准时常常因为掐钟点所致，他们常常受到责备，精力充沛、头脑敏捷的人极不愿意浪费时间，因此他们常想做完一件事后再去赴约。要是路上没有发生如爆胎、改道、突然起雾等意外事故，他们决不会迟到。他们与那些从不迟到的人相比，常常是更勤奋有用的公民。早到的人同迟到的人一样令人讨厌。客人提前半小时到达是令人讨厌的。我家有几个朋友就有这有令人恼火的习惯。唯一的办法就是请他们比别的客人晚来半小时。这样，他们可以恰好在我们要求的时间到达。 如果赶火车，早到总比晚到好，哪怕早到一会儿也好。虽然早到可能意味着浪费一点时间，但这比误了火车等上一个多小时坐下班车浪费的时间要少，而且可以避免那种正好在火车驶出站时赶到车站，因上不去车而感到的沮丧。更难堪的情况是虽然及时赶到站台上，却眼睁睁地看着那趟火车启动，把你抛下。一个小姑娘第一次单独出门就碰到了这种情况。 在火车进站20分钟前她就进了车站。因为她的父母再三跟她说，如果误了这趟车，她的东道主朋友就得接她两趟，这是不应该的。她把行李交给搬运工并给他看了车票。搬运工说她早到了两个小时，她听后大吃一惊。她从钱包里摸出一张纸条，那上面有她父亲对这次旅行详细说明，她把这张纸条交给了搬运工。搬运工说，正如纸条所说，确有一趟火车在那个时刻到站，但它只停站装邮件，不载旅客。姑娘要求看到时刻表，因为她相信父亲不能把这么大的事弄错。搬运工跑回去取时刻表，同时请来了站长。站长拿着时刻表一挥手，指着那趟列车到站时刻旁边一个很小的圆圈标记。这个标记表示列车是为装邮件而停车。正在这时，火车进站了。女孩泪流满面，央求让她不声不响地到押车员车厢里去算了。但站长态度坚决，规章制度不能破坏，姑娘只得眼看那趟火车消逝在她要去的方向而撇下了她。
◆◆coordinate v. 协调
Eg: Our efforts need to be further coordinated for higher efficiency.
efficiency: == be efficient:效率
Eg: If you wnat to complete an ideal job with your classmates as quickly as possible, I think ypu must coodniate everything as much as you can.
coordinate work: 协调工作
Eg: Who will arrange the party?
How can arrange the paragraph?
Eg: It’s your duty to organize our meeting.
harmonize: vt.& n. 协调，使调和，配和音
L60-01 end 7’45”
L60-02 begin 13’35”
Eg: The music is harmonized.
We have to harmonize our work.
◆reproach v. 责备
blame / scold / reprehend
Eg: Don’t reproach / blame him for such a little thing.
blame sb. for sth.
Beyond reproach 无可指责
Beyond doubt: 毫无疑问
Beyond understanding 无法理解
Beyond de脚本ion 无法描述
Eg: The problem is beyond / above me. 这个问题难倒了我
◆puncture v. 刺破（轮胎）
◆diversion n. 改道，绕道
◆trial n. 讨厌的事，人
Eg: After his trial, he set out with his new plane. 试飞之后，他开着飞机出发了。
◆fraction n. 很小一点儿
◆flourish n. 挥舞（打手势）
gesticulate v. 打手势
◆microscopic adj. 微小的
microwave oven: 微波炉
◆◆◆adamant adj. 坚定的，不动摇的
Eg: He is living a steady life.
strong-minded / firm / stable
obstinate / stubborn
Eg: If you are adamant, nothing is difficult for you to study English.
If you are adamant, you never give up easily.
give up == yield== surrender: 放弃，投降
yielding / surrendering
unyielding / unsurrendering ==adamant
Eg: He is (so) adamant (as) to stick to his stupid idea.
All the students here are adamant enough to study English hard.
in civilized society == in modern society
necessary == essential
背熟：Eg:Mania is a habit we develop for a long time which is harmless.
bring sth. to conclusion: 做出结论
L60-02 end 13’35”
L60-03 begin 14’41”
背熟：Without it, nothing could ever be brought to a conclusion; everything would be in state of chaos.
Everything would be in confusion / a state of chaos / disorder
Eg: Hard work is our necessity to study English.
Without it, we could not get any success. / nothing would be complete.
背熟：In ordinary living, there can be some tolerance of unpunctuality.
in ordinary living == in our dily life
tolerance = the state to tolerate something terrible.
Nothing can be worse than this.
No forms of transport could be faster than airplane.
punctual --> unpunctual; punctuality --> unpunctuality
背熟：has everything coordinated and organized for the matter in hand.
keep sb. occupied
cut things fine 把时间安排得不留余地；掐钟点
do sth. before doing
be tempted to do特别想要做某事
be eager / anxious / desperate to do
L60-03 end 14’41”
Lesson60A end 36:00
Lesson60B begin 42:40
L60-04 begin 12’30”
prefer to do
would like to do
would rather / sooner do
would prefer to do
Eg: I can’t resist the temptation to buy the beautiful dress.
I’m quite / particularly tempted to buy the buautiful dress.
Eg: Darkness descented very soon.
on time--> keep punctuality
Some people can be forgiven because of what they do even though they are unpunctual.
背熟：The over-punctual can be as much a trial to others as the unpunctual.
nuisance --> trial
背熟：The only thing to do was ask them to come half an hour later than the other guests.
Eg: The only thing to do is help you in this way.
My job is teaching. / My job is to teach.
Eg: The only thing to do is help you in this way.
What I want you to do is help me.
What does the writer aim at?
He just wants to illustrate to show that punctuality is quite important.
The over-punctual is as irritating as the unpunctual, but on some occasions, we’d better keep over-punctuality.
L60-04 end 12’30”
L60-05 begin 15’11”
mean doing sth.
draw up: 停车
draw (pull) out of station: 离站
背熟： you avoid the frustration of arriving at the very moment when the train is drawing out of the station and being unable to get on it.
When we get faulures over and over again, we always get the frustration inside our heart.
the frustration inside you can prevent you from doing what you are doing
in good time == on time
befall: sth. bad happen to
Eg: Such a bad experience befall him.
Eg: The meeting is due to begin at 9 o’clock tomorrow morning.
The train is due to set off at 3 pm.
What happened to her? What befell her?
impress upon sb. that 再三地叮嘱某人 repeat sth. over and over again
forgive --> forgivable --> unforgivable
make two journeys to meet her: 往返两次做什么
to her horror / terror / fear
on which 定语从句
Eg: I hurry to the store only to find it was closed.
背熟：The girl asked to see a timetable, feeling sure that her father could not have made such a mistake.
feeling sure that...
be brought up to do / have learnt to do
Eg: We have learnt to expect that trains are punctual.
We have been brought up to eat certain foods.
produce it with flourish
just as: 恰恰在这个时刻
背熟：The girl, tears streaming down her face, begged to be allowed to slip into the guard's van.
背熟：she had to watch that train disappear towards her destination while she was left behind.
disappear towards: 朝着什么什么消失
L60-05 end 15’11”
L60-06 begin 15’07”
Punctuality is a necassary habit, we’d better keep punctuality, but you know, over-punctuality is irritating as unpunctuality, but on some occasions, we’d better be over-punctual.
1 The only people who can afford to neglect the exercise of punctuality are _____ .
a. ordinary citizens who have nothing to do with publicity
b. people who live in remote places where there are few people
c. intellectuals who have to deal with unexpected problems
d. people who are forced to work overtime in order to finish a job.
neglect == disregard == ignore
sparsely populated, few people
Only in a sparsely-populated rural community is it possible to disregard punctuality.
2 People who cut things fine are usually _____ .
a. delayed by accidents on the roads
b. energetic, quick-minded people
c. no more irritating than the over-punctual
d. reproached for being late for appointments
cut things fine / cutted fine / cut time fine
3 The girl was very upset when the train came into the station because _____ .
a. her parents would not forgive her for missing it
b. she had two hours to wait before the next train arrived
c. she was going to have to make a second journey to reach her destination
d. the station master insisted that passengers were not allowed on to it
4 Without it, it would be impossible _____ to a conclusion. (l.2)
a. to have ever brought anything b. ever to bring anything
c. to bring nothing ever d. nothing to be brought ever
it is / will be /would be possible for sb. to do sth.
5 The time you _____ waste through being early will be less than ... (l.17)
a. must b. might c. should d. can
Eg: Although being early may mean wasting a little time
6 If you are catching a train, you _____ comfortably early than ... (ll.16-17)
a. are better being b. would be better c. had better be d. will be better to be
had better, 上级对下级或有经验的人对没有经验的人
7 ---- the frustration of arriving _____ the train is drawing out ... (ll.18-19)
a. just as b. immediately that c. in a while d. as soon as
8 And she had to watch that train disappear towards her destination _____ . (l.33)
a. and left her behind b. and leave behind her c. leaving her behind d. while it left behind her
9 In ordinary living, unpunctuality can be tolerated ____ ... (ll.4-5)
a. out of kindness b. on occasion c. to a certain extent d. in varying degrees
in varying degrees: 在不同的程度上（不断变化）
10 The over-punctual can be just as _____ to others as the unpunctual. (l.12)
a. detestable b. trying c. provident d. inconsiderate
trying adj. 气人的
considerate == thoughtful: 体贴的， inconsiderate: 没有慎重考虑的，不周到的
11 ---- since her parents had _____ that it would be unforgivable ... (ll.22-23)
a. stressed the point b. given the impression c. marked it down d. given notice
impress upon: 再三嘱托
stress the point
give the impression: 给某人以印象
12 _____ the train came into the station. (l.31)
a. Only then b. Instantly c. At that very moment d. Precisely
【Key to Multiple choice questions】
1. B 2. B 3. D 4. B 5． B 6. C 7． A 8. C 9. C 10. B 11. A 12. C