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II. Basic Listening Practice
W: Many Chinese students are too shy to say anything in a classroom.
M: I think they don’t speak because their culture values modesty, and they don’t want to appear to be showing off. Goes back to Confucius.
Q: Why don’t Chinese students say anything in classroom according to the man?
W: The government is doing something at last about sex discrimination in the workplace. Women deserve the same pay as men for the same work.
M: Yeah. In the United States, women earn only 70 percent of what men do for the same job. It’s a situation that has to be changed.
Q: What does the man say about women?
3. Script
W: I admire Michael Dell. He had a dream to be the world’s largest manufacturer of personal computers, and he has realized that dream.
M: And he dropped out of university to become a success. I wonder if there is a lesson in that.
Q: What do we learn about Dell from the conversation?
4. Script
M: Successful entrepreneurs are often self-made people who have a vision and know where they are going.
W: But do they enjoy life like you and me, or is money their only concern?
Q: What are the two speakers’ attitudes toward successful entrepreneurs?
5. Script
W: Do you agree that equal opportunity for all in an educational system is important?
M: Yes, but we have to recognize that all of us are not of equal ability.
Q: What does the man imply?
Keys: 1.C   2.A   3. D   4.B   5.A

III. Listening In
Task 1: Competition in America
Alan: What are you reading, Eliza?
Eliza: An article on American competition.
Alan: Competition is everywhere and constant. Why so much fuss about it, Miss Knowledge?
Eliza: Don’t make fun of me. According to the author, competition is especially important in American life. They’re taught to compete from early childhood. When children play games, they learn how to beat others.
Alan: And many girls want to look more attractive than the girls sitting next to them in class. Do you think that way?
Eliza: Don’t be silly. Let’s get back to the point. When children are growing up, they compete with one another in their studies.
Alan: Isn’t that also true of students in other nations? As we all know, many Asian students kill for a high test score and grab every opportunity to sharpen their competitive edge over others.
Eliza: American boys find great pleasure in competing with each other in sports, according to the author.
Alan: I do like sports. When our football team beats the other team, I feel great. Makes me want to shout out loud. But isn’t that normal throughout the world?
Eliza: American people also compete with each other at work and at climbing the social ladder.
Alan: But there’s competition in other countries as well.
Eliza: You’re right in a sense, but the author says the idea of competing is more deeply rooted in the minds of Americans. They’re even taught that if you lose and don’t feel hurt, there must be something wrong with you.
Alan: I hear that some Asians put emphasis on cooperation. Which approach do you think makes more sense?
Eliza: It’s hard to say. Anyway, there’s no accounting for different cultures.

What is the dialog mainly about?
What is the woman doing?
What do children learn from playing games according to the woman?
What does the man say about students’ studies?
What does the woman say when asked which makes more sense, competition or cooperation?
Keys: 1.C   2.A   3.C   4.B   5.D
Task 2: Americans’ Work Ethic
For four hundred years or more, one thing has been a characteristic of Americans. It is called their “work ethic”. Its (S1) roots were in the teaching of the Christian Puritans who first settled in (S2) what is now the northeastern state of Massachusetts. They believed that it was their (S3) moral duty to work at every task to please God by their
(S4) diligence, honesty, attention to details, skill, and attitude. To these Puritans, it was a (S5) sin to be lazy or to do less than your best in any task. They and later Americans tried to follow the Bible’s (S6) teachings, “If a man will not work, he shall not eat.”
Therefore, Americans have for (S7) centuries believed that they were guilty of sin if they did not work as carefully and hard as they could when they did anything. God would punish those who were careless or lazy in their work. (S8) Even as children they were taught, “If it’s worth doing at all, it’s worth doing well.”
But some people have gone beyond the usual sense of diligence. They are especially attracted to the notion of “climbing the ladder” so as to increase their status, financial position, and sense of self-worth. (S9) In English a new word has been created to describe people who work compulsivelly. The word “workaholic” describes an individual who is as addicted to work as an alcoholic is to alcohol.
There are conflicting points of view about workaholics. Those concerned with problems of mental stress believe workaholics abuse themselves physically and mentally. (S10) Others hold that workaholics are valuable members of society because they are extremely productive. The American culture values achievement, efficiency, and production, and a workaholic upholds these values.
Task 3: Do you know what “Freeze!” means?
There is one word which you must learn before you visit the U.S.A. That is “Freeze!” It means, “Stand still and don’t move.” Police officers use it when they are ready to use their guns. If the person does not obey the command and moves, they shoot.
One evening in Los Angeles, someone rang the bell doorbell of a house. It was a dangerous area at night, so the owner of the house took his gun with him when he answered the door. He opened the door and saw a person, who turned round and started walking away from the house. The owner cried “Freeze!”, but the man went on walking. The owner thought he tried to escape, so he shot him dead.
Later, a sad story was uncovered. The dead man was Yoshiro Hattori, a 16-year-old Japanese exchange student. He went to visit a friend for a Halloween party, but he could not remember the number of the house. When he realized that he had gone to the wrong house, he turned round to leave. He did not know much English and so did not understand the command “Freeze!”.
The tragedy arose from cultural misunderstanding. Those who have lived in the United States for a long time understand the possibility of being shot when one trespasses upon an individual’s property. It is a well-known fact in America that a person’s home is his castle. Although Rodney Pears, the owner of the house, gave a verbal warning “Freeze!” to Hattori, Hattori did not know it meant “Stand still and don’t move”, and therefore did not obey it. This misunderstanding became the trigger of Hattori’s disaster. The concept of owning guns is hard for Japanese people to understand, but in America you are permitted to own a gun under the U.S. Constitution.
1.What does the word “Freeze!” mean in the passage?
2.What did the owner of the house take with him when he answered the door?
3. Why did the Japanese student turn around and leave?
What is mentioned as a possible result of trespassing?
Why is the phrase “a person’s home is his castle” quoted in the passage?
Keys: 1.C   2.A   3.D   4.B   5.C

IV. Speaking Out
MODEL 1   Americans glorify individualism.
Susan:  John, I was looking for you. Where have you been hiding all morning?
John:   Well, I caught Professor Brown’s lecture on American individualism.
Susan:  Oh, how did you find it?
John:   Enlightening. Americans glorify individualism. They believe individual interests rank above everything else.
Susan:  Sounds intersting. It’s a sharp contrast to the oriental collectivism Professor Wang talked about last semester.
John:   But you should know that the individualism in the United States is not necesssarily an equivalent for selfishness.
Susan:  Then what does it mean in the States?
John:   They believe all values, rights, and duties originate in individuals, so they emphasize individual initiative and independence.
Susan:  There could be something in that. Of course in oriental countries the interests of the group are more important than anything else.
John: I  So, it’s all the more necessary for foreigners to understand American culture, or they can’t hope to understand the importance of privacy in the West..
Susan:  Maybe that’s the reason nuclear families outnumber extended families in the United States.
John:   Right on! You’re catching on fast!
Susan:  Now let me ask you a question.
John:   Shoot. Go ahead.
Susan:  Why do Americans cherish individualism more than oriental people?
John:   I don’t know. Anyway, Professor Brown didn’t say.
Susan:  One reason might be that American children stop sleeping with their parents at an early age. They learn independence early, so it’s deeply rooted.
John:   Wow, that’s an intelligent guess!

MODEL2   What do you think are the reasons for
          that difference?
Susan:  Do you find that people in America often walk faster than people in China? Americans always seem to be in a hurry.
John:   It’s hard to come to a definite conclusion. Some Americans walk in a leisurely way, and some Chinese hurry all the time. But on the whole, I think you’re right.
Susan:  What do you think are the reasons for that difference?
John:   Americans treasure time. For them, time is tangible. It’s a thing. “Time is money.” You can “spend time”, “waste time”, “save time”. You can even “kill time”!
Susan:  Does this strong sense of time affect their lifestyle?
John:   Sure. If you’re 20 minutes late for a bussiness appointment, the other person or persons will be annoyed. They may not trust you anymore.
Susan:  But as far as I know, English-speaking people may be 15-30 minutes late for a dinner party.
John:   That’s true. For an informal occasion like that, punctuality is not so important. Also, a boss may keep his employees waiting for a long time.
Susan:  But if his secretary is late, she’s in trouble. She will probably receive a reprimand.
John:   How true!
Susan:  The American workship of time probably led them to create fast foods.
John:   I agree. And globalization shrinks the differences between cultures. Now people everywhere are rushing, and anywhere you go, you find Kentucky Fried Chicken.
Susan:  But plenty of Chinese are still making appointments saying, “If I am late, wait for me.”
John:   But with more intercultural communication, I think the gap will eventually be bridged, and Chinese will be hurrying everywhere.

MODEL3   That’s the secret of their success.
Chris:  Hey Sue, how’s the math class going? Are you head of the class?
Susan:  Are you kidding? There’s a bunch of foreign students in the class---from China somewhere---and they are on top.
Chris:  Why do you think so many Chinese students excel in math? It’s been my observation that the Chinese students are usually the best.
Susan:  In class they don’t say much, but they definitely get the best marks.
Chris:   I think part of it is their work ethic. They never skip class, and they pay attention.
Susan:  One Chinese student in my class did homework each night until the early hours. He never took a break, watched TV, or went out for a beer.
Chris:  That’s the secret of their success: hard work and deligence.
Susan:  It’s so unfair. I could probably do better if I worked harder, but that’s no fun. I think learning should be more fun.
Chris:  Someone with a knowledge of chess would find a chess tournament fascinating. But if you don’t have the knowledge, then you won’t understand the significance of the moves, and you’ll be bored.
Susan:  So what you’re saying is knowledge requires hard work, and knowledge makes things interesting. I am not against knowledge; I just want to learn it in an interesting way. What’s more, “All work and noplay makes Jack a dull boy.”
Now Your Turn
Task 1:
Maggie: Josh, you were late for work this morning.
Josh:   I was only about ten minutes late. Anyway, the boss didn’t say anything about it.
Maggie: As a friend, I must give you a warning. You should understand that Americans treasure time.
Josh:   What do you mean?
Maggie: You see, for them time is tangible. It’s a thing. “Time is money.” You can “spend time”, “waste time”, “save time”. You can even “kill time”!
Josh:   Does this strong sense of time affect their lifestyle?
Maggie: If you’re 20 minutes late for a business appointment, the other persons will be annoyed. They may not trust you anymore. Today you were ten minutes late for work. That was bad enough.
Josh:   I was caught in a traffic jam. What could I have done?
Maggie: You should have called the secretary to say you might be late. I learned the importance of punctuality when I studied at an American university.
Josh:   Tell me about it.
Maggie: Some students were late handing in assignments and the professors gave them poor marks. One professor even refused to read a term paper that was turned in after the deadline.
Josh:   But as far as I know, English-speaking people may be 15-30 minutes late for a dinner party.
Maggie: That’s true. For an informal occasion like that, punctuality is not so important. Also, a boss may keep his employees waiting for a long time.
Josh:   But if his secretary is late, she’s in trouble. She will probably be reprimanded.
Maggie: How true!

V. Let’s Talk
Culture shock happens to most people who travel abroad. Psychologists tell us that there are five distinct phases of culture shock.
During the first few days of a person’s stay in a new country, everything usually goes fairly smoothly. The newcomer is excited about being in a new place where there are new sights and sounds, new smells and tastes. They may find themselves staying in hotels or with a home-stay family that is excited to meet the foreign stranger. This first stage of culture shock is called the “honeymoon phase”.
Unfortunately, this phase often comes to an end fairly soon. The newcomer may encounter many problems in transportation, shopping, or interpersonal communication. You may feel that people no longer care about your problems. You might even start to think that the people in the host country don’t like foreigners. This may lead to the second stage of culture shock, known as the “rejection phase”. The newcomer may start to complain about and reject the host culture.
If you don’t survive stage two successfully, you may find yourself moving into stage three: the “regression phase”. The word “regression” means moving backward, and in this phase of culture shock, you spend much of your time speaking your own language, watching videos from your home country, and eating food form home. Also, you may remember only the good things about your home country.
If you survive the third stage successfully, you will move into the fourth stage of culture shock called the “recovery phase”. In this stage you become more comfortable with the customs of the host country. You start to realize that no country is that much better than another---they are just different.
Much later, when you return to your homeland, you may find yourself entering the fifth phase of culture shock---the “reverse culture shock”. After you have become comfortable with the habits and customs of a new lifestyle, you may find that you are no longer completely comfortable in your home country. It may take a little while to become at ease with your home culture.
If you overcome the problems in all five phases, you will be much stronger, and you will be a citizen of the world.
Honeymoon Phase Everything usually goes fairly smoothly. 

Rejection Phase The newcomer may encounter many problems in transportation,shopping,or international communication You may feel that peoplet no longer care about your problems, and they don’t like foreigners. The newcomer may start to complain about and reject the host culture. 

Regression Phase 
You spend much of your time speaking your own language, watching videos from your home country, and eating food from home. You may remember only the good things about your home country.
Recovery Phase You become more comfortable with the customs of the host country. You start to realize that no country is that much better than another---they are just different. 

Reverse Culture Shock You are no longer completely comfortable in your home country. It may take a little while to become at ease with your home culture. 

Further Listening and Speaking
Task 1: Punctuality
To Americans, punctuality is a way of showing respect for other people’s time. Being more than 10 minutes late to an appointment usually calls for an apology, and maybe an explanation. People who are running late often call ahead to let others know of the delay. Of course, the less formal the situation, the less important it is to be exactly on tome. At informal get-togethers, for example, people often arrive as much as 30 minutes past the appointed time. But they usually don’t try that at work.
American lifestyles show how much people respect the time of others. When people plan an event, they often set the time days or weeks in advance. Once the time is fixed, it takes almost an emergency to chance it. If people want to come to your house for a friendly visit, they will usually call first to make sure it is convenient. Only very close friends will just “drop in” unannounced. Also, people hesitate to call others late at night for fear they might be in bed. The time may vary, but most folks think twice about calling after 10:00 p.m.
To outsiders, Americans seem tied to the clock. People in some Eastern cultures value relationships more than schedules. In these societies, people don’t try to control time, but to experience it. Many Eastern cultures, for example, view time as a cycle. The rhythm of nature---from the passing of seasons to the monthly cycle of the moon---shapes their view of events. If they have wasted some time or let an opportunity pass by, they are not very worried, knowing that more time and opportunities will come in the next cycle. But Americans often want to jump at the first opportunity. They are unwilling to stand by idly and give up the opportunity.
The early American hero Benjamin Franklin expressed that view of time like this: “Do you love life? Then do now waste time, for that is the stuff life is made of.”

According to the passage, when people are late in America, what do they do?
According to the passage, what do Americans do after the time for an appointment is fixed?
How do people in some Eastern countries view relationships and schedules?
According to the passage, why aren’t some Eastern people worried if they let an opportunity pass by?
5.  What was Benjamin Franklin’s view of time?
Keys: 1.C   2.B   3.A   4.C   5.D

Task 2: Our Personal Spaces
Our personal space, that piece of the universe we occupy and call our own, is contained within an invisible boundary surrounding our body. As the owners of this area, we usually decide who may enter and who may not. When our space is invaded, we react in a variety of ways. We back up and retreat, stand our ground as our hands become moist from nervousness, or sometimes even react violently. Our response shows not only our unique personality, but also our cultural background.
For example, cultures that stress individualism such as England, the United States, Germany, and Australia generally demand more space than collective cultures do, and tend to become aggressive when their space is invaded. This idea of space is quite different from the one found in the Mexican and Arab cultures. In Mexico, the physical distance between people when engaged in conversation is closer than what is usual north of the border. And for middle easterner, typical Arab conversations are at close range. Closeness cannot be avoided.
As is the case with most of our behavior, our use of space is directly linked to the value system of our culture. In some Asian cultures, for example, employees do not stand near their bosses; the extended distance demonstrates respect. Extra interpersonal distance is also part of the cultural experience of the people of Scotland and Sweden, for whom it reflects privacy. And in Germany, private space is sacred.
Keys: 1.T   2.F   3.T   4.F   5.F

Task 3: We don’t know what to do with them.
A Russian, a Cuban, an American businessman, and an American lawyer were passengers on a fast train speeding across the French countryside. As time wore on, the men gradually became friendly with one another, introducing themselves and shaking hands. Eventually, the Russian took out a large bottle of vodka and poured each of his traveling companions a drink. Just as the American businessman was sipping the vodka and praising its fine quality, the Russian hurled the half-full bottle out of the open window.
“What did you do that for?” asked the startled American businessman.
“Vodka is plentiful in my country,” said the Russian, “In fact, we have thousands and thousands of liters of it---far more than we need.”
The American businessman shook his head and leaned back in his seat, obviously baffled by the Russian’s reasoning.
A little later, the young Cuban passed around a box of fine Havana cigars. The men enjoyed this treat and made admiring remarks about the pleasures of smoking good Havana cigars. At that very moment the Cuban took a couple of puffs of his cigar and then tossed it out of the open window.
“I thought the Cuban economy was not good this year,” the American businessman said. “Yet you threw that perfectly good cigar away. I find your actions quite puzzling.”
“Cigars,” the Cuban replied, “are a dime a dozen in Cuba. We have more of them than we know what to do with.”
The American businessman sat in silence for a moment. Then he got up, grbbed the lawyer, and threw him out of the window.
News Report
Russian Popcorn Festival
American popcorn has made its way into the heart of Russian culture. Organizers and participants came together on Sunday at a Moscow festival marking the tenth anniversary of the introduction of popcorn to Russia.
It was exactly ten years ago, on December 16, 1991, that popcorn, considered an American delicacy here, first made its appearance in this land famous for its artists.
To celebrate the occasion, ten “artists” decided to recreate a famous Russian painting in, you guessed it, popcorn. It took the ten artists a total of six hours of painstaking work to complete the popcorn painting. The result of this long ordeal was a 120 square meter popcorn mosaic.
The Russian Records Agency, the local equivalent of the Guinness Book of World Records, was at the Manezh exhibition complex to witness the event. A ceremony was held in front of onlookers to officially register the record.
The ceremony was immediately followed by a popcorn lovers’feast, with festival-goers consuming large amounts of the much-loved snack. Both the young and the old eagerly took part in the festive celebrations. Some participants voiced their support for the unusual event.
There were also those who talked about feeling a sense of camaraderie among their fellow popcorn enthusiasts.
The celebrations continued for hours and even included some live performances.
Clean up for the event was no problem---there were many eager onlookers on hand to clean up---and eat---the delicious mess.

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