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疯狂英语口语绝招-语音突破经典第7课

所属教程:疯狂英语口语绝招-语音突破经典

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Chapter 3
第三章

Reduction and Contraction
弱读与缩读

One of the truly indicative aspects of the American sound is the rapid American English. Rapid English is a combination of liaison, contraction and reduction. Since you probably first became acquainted with English through the printed word, you may find it uncomfortable, and you may even hesitate to use these reductions in your speech. However, it is important that you recognize reductions when you hear them, so that you can understand better what native speakers are saying. Speakers of standard American English use reduced English much of the time. The correct use of reduction in appropriate reduced English would make you sound very American.
美式英语语速快是美国口语的显著特征之一。快速美式英语是连读、缩读和弱读的联合体。一开始,你很可能是通过文字和书本认识英语的,你会对快速口语感到不太自在,而且你在讲话时也不太敢使用弱读。不过,你能否听出弱读是很重要的,只有这样,你才能更好地听懂英语为母语的人说的话。使用标准美语的人都会常常使用英语弱音。如果你能在合适的时候正确地使用弱音,听起来你就很像地道的美国人了。

Savvy 6第六招
Reduction 弱读

Listen to the word photograph and pay close attention as it is read in two different ways.
留心听一下photograph这个单词。这个单词会用不同的方式念两遍。

photograph

This type of reduction makes English flow more smoothly and rapidly. Learning how to use vowel reductions is an important tool in making your English sound natural and easy. There are two areas where vowels are reduced. One is inside words that have two or more syllables. The other area is in the use of the little words that hold your sentence together to make grammatical sense.
正是这种弱读使英语听起来更为流畅快速。要想使你的英语口语听起来自然流畅,就必须学会如何运用元音弱读。元音弱读有两方面内容:一是有两个或两个以上音节的单词;二是如何念一些把句子连在一起、使之合乎语法的短词。

1. Two-syllable Words
双音节单词
The typical pattern is to reduce the second syllable.
双音节单词中弱化的一般是第二个音节。

April, enter, restful, escape, release, deny

My birthday's in April.
Where do we enter?
Press this button to release the door.
His guilt was hard to deny.

2. Multiple-syllable Words
多音节单词
In multiple-syllable words, one syllable will be stressed. One or two others may or may not get some stress and at least one syllable will be reduced. We've already seen this with our example of photograph.
多音节单词里,有一个音节是重读的,其它的一、两个音节可能会有一些重音,单词里至少有一个音节是弱读的。我们刚听过的photograph就是一个例子。

religion, education, eradicate, entertain, competition, eliminate, instigate

What's your religion?
Where did you get your education?
How can we eradicate all the fleas?
Let's entertain tonight.
Try to eliminate your competition
How can I instigate an investigation?

3. Some words have a vowel sound that's completely eliminated.
在有些单词里会有一个元音是完全被省略的。

This happens when there's more than one reduced vowel sound following the stressed syllable. The dropped syllable tends to be the one right after the stressed syllable. It happens more commonly before an r.
在重读音节后面跟着不止一个的弱化音节时会出现这种情况。被完全省略的常常是紧跟在重读音节后面的音节。这种情况在字母r前面最常见。

chocolate, restaurant, temperature, family, natural, several, separate

Most people like chocolate.
What's your favorite restaurant?
The temperature gets pretty high in the desert.
Where's your family?
I like to go to natural food stores.
You have several options.
Could we have separate checks?

4. When a word ends with ary, ully or ally, the a or u vowel is often dropped.
如果单词以ary、ully或ally结尾的话,元音a或u常常会被省略。

finally, accidentally, powerfully, elementary

We finally finished painting.
I accidentally cut myself.
I was powerfully affected by the movie last night.
There are two elementary schools in the neighborhood.

5. Vowel reductions occur in the little words
短字里的元音略读

Articles such as a or the, pronouns such as he or it, auxiliary verbs such as is or can, prepositions such as to or for and conjunctions such as and or but are usually reduced sounds.
冠词如a或the、代词如he或it、助动词如is或can、介词如to或for、还有连词如and或but,常常会被弱化。

○1 Articles 冠词

the the man, the best, the last one, the apple, the egg, the easy way

Where's the classroom?
What's the time?
Let's take the new car.
Where's the electricity?
When's the eclipse?
The eggs are scrambled.

a a girl, a banana, a computer
This is a book.
Where's a restaurant?
I'm watching a movie.

an an orange, an opening, an interview
Eat an orange.
My mother is an Italian citizen.
I have an apple in my bag.

○2 Prepositions 介词

to today, to work, to school, to the store
We have to go now.
He went to work.
He told me to help.
I go to work.
A quarter to two.
The only way to get it.
You've got to pay to get it.
So to speak.
I want to go.
I'm going to the store.
Which way to Nevada?
I went to Illinois.
But I want to. (Exception at the end of a sentence.)

at
I'll see you at lunch.
The meeting's at one.
He's at work.
They're at school.
I live at 3929 River Street.
We have to leave at ten.
Richard's at the store.

for
This is for you.
It's for my friend.
I went to the store for some eggs.
I filled the gas tank for you.

from
It's from the IRS.
Get away from me.
Who's it from? (Exception at the end of a sentence)
Where are you from? (Exception at the end of a sentence)

in
It's in the bag.
What's in it?
He's in America.
He lives in Maine.
He's in the pool.

of
I need a pound of bananas.
Here's a loaf of bread.
He has a lot of energy.
That's a lot of exercise.
It's the top of the line.
It's a state of the art printer.
He had hands of ice.
Get out of here.
Practice all of the time.

○3 Pronouns 代词

it
Give it to me.
What is it?
I got it in London.
It's all right.

your
Is this your dog?
I like your new dress.
Where's your wife?

our
Whose our teacher?
I like our new car.
Where's our dog?

them
can be pronounced [m] or [m]


[m] [m]
I saw them yesterday. I saw them yesterday.
We fixed them already. We fixed them already.
I passed them in the hall. I passed them in the hall.

what
What time is it?
What's up?
What's on your agenda?
What do you mean?
What did you mean?
What did you do about it?

some
Do you want some more?
I'll have some coffee, thank you.
Here's some money.

○4 Conjunction 连词

and ham and eggs, bread and butter, you and I, salt and pepper
We have mashed potatoes and gravy.
There are roses and daisies in the garden.
We went to Washington and Oregon.
We need a dish washer and an oven.

or soup or salad, now or later, more or less, left or right
Do you want cream or sugar?
Are you Mary or Susan?

that
I know that it's true.
I don't think that I know you.
I heard that you were coming.
He said that he liked it.
It's true that I'm English.

as
This is as good as it gets.
That is as it should be.

but
I don't know, but I think so.
John is well, but Larry is sick.
I like her but she doesn't like me.

than
This is better than that.
The older child behaves better than the younger one.
It's warmer than yesterday.

○5 Be 系动词

are
What are you doing?
Where are you going?
How are you?
Those are no good.

is
This is it.
How is it?
Why is it cold?
How is it going?
Where is your house?
Why is it so cold?

was
What was it?
When was your birthday?
I was just leaving.


Reduced vowels are often undetected if you're not accustomed to listening for short vowel sounds. The best way to eliminate this problem is to practice saying them. This will help remind you that they're there. It's also helpful if you know grammar well. This will help you to assume that they're there even if you don't hear them.
如果你不习惯听短元音的话,那些弱化的元音是不容易被察觉的。解决这个问题的办法是自己练习发这些音,这样做,你就会知道这些被弱化的元音的位置。如果你熟悉语法,你即使听不到那些弱化的元音,也可以假设它们的存在。

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