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疯狂英语口语绝招-语音突破经典第8课

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Savvy 7第七招
Contractions 缩略

Contractions can be composed of pronouns and auxiliary verbs, nouns and auxiliary verbs, two auxiliary verbs or auxiliary verbs and not. The most common contractions are pronouns with auxiliary verbs.
缩略可由代词和助动词、名词和助动词、两个助动词或助动词和not字组成。最常见的缩略词是代词和助动词的组合。

1. Affirmative Contraction
肯定式缩略词

I am becomes I'm. --> I'm from San Diego.
he is becomes he's. --> He's gonna do it.
she is becomes she's. --> She's happy.
it is becomes it's. --> It's a dog.
you are becomes you're. --> You're our friends.
we are becomes we're. --> We're gonna do it.
they are becomes they're. --> They're lawyers.
I will becomes I'll. --> I'll do it.
he will becomes he'll. --> He'll be going now.

Tom'll take it.
She'll help you.
It'll do it.
You'll give me a call.
We'll be going now.
They'll take it.

have/has I've got it.
He's gone.
She's been here before.
It's gone.
You've got it.
We've been here before.
They've gone.

had or would I'd go if I could.
Do you think he'd win?
Do you think she'd win?
When you'd finished, you left.
We'd go if we could.
Do you think they'd win?

How'm I doing?
How's it going?
How'd you know?
Where's he been?
Where're you taking me?
When're we getting them?
When'd you find out?
Who's gonna know?
Who'll take us?
Who'd done it?
What's his name?
What're they saying?
What'd we do?
What've you been doing?
Why's he doing that?
Why'd you come?

2. Negative Contractions
否定式缩略词

isn't It isn't mine.
Isn't that cute?
Why isn't your sister coming?
aren't They aren't here yet.
Aren't you hungry?
Why aren't you coming?
don't I don't want to go.
We don't have enough time.
Don't you like tomatoes?
doesn't It doesn't look good.
He doesn't think so.
She doesn't have time.
didn't I didn't have much fun.
We didn't do anything.
Didn't you do the dishes?
hasn't Why hasn't he called?
She hasn't been to New York.
Hasn't she sold her car?
haven't They haven't arrived yet.
Haven't they finished?
Why haven't they left?
hadn't He hadn't been to the fair before.
I hadn't studied for the test.
Hadn't you listened to that CD before?

3. Can and can't
Can和can’t
It can be very difficult to hear the difference between can and can't. This is not surprising since the Standard American dialect tends to drop the final t sound on most words. Usually the t on can't is also dropped. However, there are some rules to follow that will make it much easier for you to hear and pronounce these two important words.
要分辨can和can't是非常困难的。这也很正常,因为标准的美国口音大都会省略大部分单词词尾的t音。Can't里的t音也会被省略。不过,也有一些规律可以帮助你更容易地辨别这两个词之间的区别,并准确地发音。
For can, the affirmative form, the vowel sound is reduced to []. The usual pronunciation is [] or [ken], not []. On the other hand, we heard the full form of the vowel on can't, the negative form. When this auxiliary comes at the end of a sentence, the affirmative form becomes []. It's common to hear the t on the negative form when the word comes at the end of the sentence.
在念肯定式can时,词中的元音减弱到[]。这个单词一般念[]或[ken],而不是[]。另一方面,我们可以听到否定式can't中完整的元音。如果这个助动词出现在句尾的话,其肯定式发音是[]。如果这个助动词以否定式出现在句尾的话,常常可以听得见t音。

I can do it. Yes, I can.
I can't do it. No, I can't.

Another helpful way to hear the difference is that in the affirmative form can is usually unstressed and reduced but the main verb or another word will most likely get a lot of stress. In the negative form, you're more likely to hear the stress on can't.
另一个有效的辨认方法是can的肯定式常常不重读,而很多重音则是放在同一个句子里的谓语动词或另一个词。而当它以否定式出现时,你很可能会听到重音放在can't。

Can we see each other again?
Can't we see each other again?

The children can swim.
The children can't swim.

I can speak Spanish.
I can't speak Spanish.

We can go this way.
We can't go this way.

4. H Reduction.
H略读
Another type of reduction of little words occurs with pronouns and possessives that begin with h: his, her, hers, him or he, and with have, has or had. The Standard American dialect tends to drop the h on these words as long as they do not begin a sentence or need to be stressed.
短词中元音略读的另一个情况是那些以字母h开始的代词和所有格:his、her、hers、him或he,还有have、has或had。如果这些词不是处于句首或有需要重读,标准美国口音一般会省略这些词的h音。

have Where have you been?
Why have you come here?
What have they done?
Who have you told?
haven't Why haven't we met you before?
Why haven't you finished?
has, he Where has he been?
How is he going?
his What's his name?
Where's his car?
hasn't,he Why hasn't he called me?
has, him Who's seen him?
I like him.
Do you like him?
hers That's hers.
I think hers is blue.
hasn't, her He hasn't seen her.
he's Do you think he's here?
I don't know when he's coming.

5. Rapid English Phrases.
快速英语词组
There are a number of other elements that cannot really be categorized with either contractions or reductions, even though they involve contracting and reducing vowel sounds. They can best be described as rapid English. Here are a few hints on how to help make your English sound more Standard American.
在英语中,还有另外一些因素虽说与元音的缩读或弱读有关,但却不能归类为缩读或弱读。最恰当的说法是快速英语。这里有几个方法可以使你讲的英语更像标准英语。

○1 First we'll see how some sounds change when followed by the sound y. When a word ending with an s sound is followed by a word that begins with y, the sound becomes s-h.
首先,我们来看一下跟在y音后的一些发音变化。如果一个词的词尾是s,而它后跟词的词首是y,那么发音为s-h。
this your --> []

Is this your pen?
I miss your friendship.
Did he kiss your sister?
Is this your friend?

○2 When a word ending with a z sound is followed by a word beginning with a y, the sound changes to z-h.
如果词尾是z,而它后面的词首是y的话,发音为z-h。
does you --> []

Does your dog do tricks?
Is your mother home?
Why is your car door open?
Does your sister have kids?

○3 When a word ends with a t and is followed by a word that begins with a y, the sound changes to c-h.
如果词尾是t,而它后面的词首是y的话,发音为c-h。
that you --> []

Is that your boss?
I don't know what you're gonna do.
Did I hit you?
Set your books down.

○4 When a word ends with d and is followed by a y, the sound changes to [].
如果词尾是d,而它后跟的词首是y的话,发音为[]。
would you --> [′]

Would you like a cup of coffee?
How would you like to go to a movie?

○5 Sometimes, the last sound in a word disappears. If a word ends with an s or a z and the next word begins with an s-h, the s or z is lost.
有的时候,单词的最后一个音被完全省略。如果单词的词尾是s或z,而下一个单词的词首为s-h音时,s或a不发音。

horse shoe Let's play horse shoes.
his shirt His shirt is new.
this sugar This sugar is for you.
he sure He sure shall do it.

6. Further Reductions.
其它略读
Many commonly used verb forms, especially those already contracted, are further reduced.
不少常用的动词形式,特别是那些已经缩略的动词形式,会采用略读。

has to --> []
She has to go now.
He has to study.
It has to be late.

have to --> [heft]
We have to study.
I have to get to work.
You have to turn off the lights.

had to --> []
I had to go home.
We had to see our friends.
You had to do it.

ought to --> [t]
You ought to see your mother.
We ought to buy some food.

got to --> []
I've got to go now.
We've got to do it.
You've got to understand.

want to --> []
I want to drive.
Do you want to go for a walk?

used to --> []
I used to drink too much coffee.
He used to smoke.

suppose to --> []
I'm supposed to call home.
We're supposed to think it over.

7. Modal contractions
情态动词
Modals are words like should, could, would and may. They often get reduced in natural conversational English.
情态动词should、could、would和may在口语中常常会略读。

should have --> [′] or [′]
shouldn't have --> [′] or [′]
You should have told me.
You shouldn't have told me.
We should have eaten first.
We shouldn't have eaten first.

would have --> [′] or [′]
wouldn't have --> [′] or [′]
We would have gone.
We wouldn't have gone.
We would have asked you.
We wouldn't have asked you.

could have --> [′] or [′]
couldn't have --> [′] or [′]
You could have said something.
You couldn't have said something.
You could have only had one.
You couldn't have only had one.

must have --> [′] or [′]
must not have --> [′] or [′]
It must have been good.
It mustn't have been good.
You must have known.
You mustn't have known.

might have --> [′] or [′]
He might have done it.
He might have eaten first.
He might have tried it.
He might have asked about it.

It's very common to reduce the nagative don't to [].
don't通常会略读成[]。
I don't want to go.
I don't think so.
We don't live here anymore.
You don't get anymore.

The expression don't know is often pronounced [′].
don't know通常会读成[′]。
You don't know his name?
I don't know anything.
We don't know who you are.

didn't is often pronounced [dint].
didn't通常会略读成[dint]。
didn't --> [dint]
I didn't say anything.
We didn't like it.
You didn't call me.

The trick for the above expressions is to keep the vowel sounds very short.
掌握以上表达方式的窍门是元音发得很短。

8. Colloquial English
英语口语
Most speakers of the Standard American dialect use colloquial English much of the time though they may seem nonstandard or too informal to you. Whether you choose to use them or not, it's entirely up to you. However, it's beneficial to know them and to learn to understand what they mean because you'll probably hear them all the time.
以下这些短语虽然看起来不是很规范,或者你觉得它们太随意,但说标准美语口语的大部分人都会常常用到口语短语。当然,用或不用这些短语取决于你,不过因为你常常会听到它们,知道这些口语并了解它们的意思是很有帮助的。

It's typical in informal conversations to drop the auxiliary verbs off of questions. You can also drop the pronouns as well.
在非正式的谈话中,常用的方法是省略问句中的助动词。代词也可省略。

Are you going to the movies? --> You going to the movies?
or, Going to the movies?

Do you need anything else? You need 'nything else?
Would you like some coffee? Like some coffee?
Do you want to go for a walk? Wanna go for a walk?
Are you going to the store? Gonna go to the store?

○1 Colloquial Reductions and Liaisons
口语中的弱读和连读

I've gotta go.
I have got to go.

I've gotta book.
I have got a book.

Wanna dance?
Do you want to dance?

Wanna banana?
Do you want a banana?

Lemme in.
Let me in.

Lemmego.
Let me go.

I'll letcha know.
I'll let you know.

Dija do it?
Did you do it?

Nä chet.
Not yet.

I'll meechu layder.
I'll meet you later.

Whaddyu think?
What do you think?

Whajoo do with it?
What did you do with it?

Howja like it?
How did you like it?

Whenju geddit?
When did you get it?

Whyju tay kit?
Why did you take it?

Why don chu try it?
Why don't you try it?

Whaddya waitin’s for?
What are you waiting for?

Whatcha doin'?
What are you doing?

Howzit going?
How is it going?

Where's the watchamacallit?
Where's the what you may call it.

Where's watsizname?
Where's what is his name?
那个谁在哪儿?(一时想不起名字)

How 'bout it?
How about it?

He's gotta hurry 'cuz he's late.
He has got to hurry because he is late.

I coulda bina cotender.
I could've been a contender.

Couldjoo spee di dup, pleez?
Could you speed it up, please?

Wouldjoo mindifai try dit?
Would you mind if I tried it?

Arnchoo Bäb Barker?
Aren't you Bob Barker?

Knchoo see it my way for a change?
Can't you see it my way for a change?

Don choo geddit?
Don't you get it?

I shoulda toljoo.
I should have told you.

Teller I misser.
Tell her (that) I miss her.

Tellim I missim.
Tell him (that) I miss him.


○2 Extreme Reductions
口语中极度略读

Jeet? Did you eat?
No, joo? No, did you?
Whyncha getta job? Why don't you get a job?
I dunno, stoo hard. I don't know, it's too hard.

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