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疯狂英语口语绝招-语音突破经典第9课

所属教程:疯狂英语口语绝招-语音突破经典

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Chapter 4
第四章

Stress
重读

Like other languages, English has a system of sounds, stress, and intonation that gives it a rhythm and melody all its own. Although you may be able to pronounce each sound of the language correctly, you need to learn to recognize stress and intonation pattern when you hear them so that they will be easier for you to understand. You also need to learn to use these patterns if others are to understand you more easily.
英语像其它语言一样,有它自己的一套由声音、重音和语调系统形成的英语独有的节奏和旋律。虽然你可能会准确地发英语的每一个音,但你在听到重音和语调时,还需要学会如何识别它们,这样你就能更容易地听懂别人所说。当然,如果你想别人更好地明白你的意思,你也需要学会如何运用这些模式。

Stress refers to the degree of force or loudness you give to a syllable in a word or to a word or words in a phrase or a sentence. Stressing a syllable indicates the importance of that syllable. Stressing a word or words in phrases or sentences indicates the importance of those words.
一个单词中的一个音节、词组里的一个或几个单词,或一个句子,读起来显得更有力或更响亮一些,此为重音。重读音节表示那个音节的重要性。同样,重读词组里一个或几个单词、句子也表明这些单词是重要的。


Savvy 8第八招
Syllable Stress Patterns 音节重音

In every word of two or more syllables, one syllable is stressed. That means that the vowel sound in that syllable is said louder, is said on a higher pitch, and is held longer than the other vowel sounds in the same word. Other syllables are less stressed or are weak syllables. Make the vowel sound short, but pronounce the consonant sounds clearly and distinctly.
在有两个或两个以上音节的所有单词中,总会有一个音节是重读的。这就是说,与其它元音相比,在念这个重读的音节里,要声音大些,音调高些,还有发音时间长一些。其它音节就少一些重音,或称弱读音节,念的时候时间短一点,但辅音发音一定要清晰。

Listen to the following word groups.
请听下面的词。

desert or dessert? personal or personnel? comedy or committee?

Did you hear the difference? Where you place the stress on a syllable can change the meaning of your word. Syllable stress in English appears to be arbitrary. Yet there are rules that can help you. As you begin to memorize the following stress patterns, it's important to realize that there are many words that do not follow the patterns. Some times one word may fall under two possible rules. When this happens, check your dictionary for clarification.
你能分辨这几组单词吗?重音的不同位置能改变单词的意思。英语中的音节重音乍看好像没有什么规律,不过,还是有几条规则会对你有帮助。在开始牢记这些重音模式时,你要知道还有许多单词并不适用于这些重音模式。有的时候,一个单词会适用于两个重音模式,碰到这种情况,你就需要查字典来搞清楚究竟哪个音节需要重读。

Most two-syllable words in English are stressed on the first syllable. Words that come from early English origin have this pattern. Many commonly used words fall into this category.
英语中的很多单词的重音都是在第一个音节。那些源于早期英语的单词就是这样。不少常用的单词也是属于这一类。

better, only, over, leader, lady, hidden, careful.

1. Words that have entered English from French are stressed on the last syllable.
源自法语的单词重音在最后一个音节。

millionaire, veneer, trustee, burlesque, boutique, chauffeur.

2. Noun compounds: Two or three words that have been put together to form one new word usually carry the stress on the first word.
复合名词:两个或三个单词一起组成一个新的单词,重音在第一个音节。

sidewalk, railroad, paycheck, airport, runway, supermarket.

3. Verb compounds usually place the stress on the first word.
复合动词的重音多数在第一个音节。

baby-sit, house-sit, cat-sit, car-jack.

4. Phrasal verbs are stressed on the second word. Look out! The same expressions turned to nouns are stressed on the first word. A lookout.
动词短语的重音在第二个音节。如:Look out! 同一个动词短语,如果把重音放在第一个音节,就成了名词,如:A lookout。

To pay back A pay-back
To put down A put-down
To run down A run-down
To stand by A stand-by

5. Prefixes
前缀
The following one-syllable prefixes are usually unstressed.
以下的单音节前缀通常不重读。

○1 Prefix Example
前缀 词例
co- cooperate
con- continue
com- committee
de- deliver
dis- discuss
ex- exhibit
e- enough
mis- mistake
pre- prepare
pro- protest
re- reward

Certain one-syllable prefixes usually have secondary stress.
有些单音节前缀通常用次重音念。


○2 Prefix Example
前缀 词例
bi- biology
in- inept
ir- irresponsible
mal- malnourish
non- nonpoisonous
pan- panorama
post- postpone
re- rewrite
sub- sublet
trans- transfer
un- unhappy

When two-syllable prefixes form a three-syllable word, there is usually primary stress on the first syllable, followed by an unstressed syllable and secondary stress on the third syllable. When two-syllable prefixes form a word of four or more syllables, there is usually secondary stress on the first syllable, not stress on the second, and primary stress on the third. The remaining syllables are unstressed.
如果双音节的前缀成为一个三音节单词的一部分,强重音通常放在第一个音节,接着第二个音节是非重音,次重音则放在第三个音节。如果双音节的前缀成为一个有四个或更多音节的单词的一部分,次重音通常放在第一个音节,而不是在第二个音节,强重音则是在第三个音节。其它的音节都是非重音。

○3 Prefix Three-syllable Word Four or More Syllables Word
前缀 三音节单词 四个以上音节单词
ante- antedate antecedent
anti- antifreeze antisocial
auto- automat automatic
circum- circumcise circumvention
counter- counterpoint counterclockwise
micro- microscope microscopic
mono- monorail monolingual
multi- multiply multinational
uni- universe universal
ultra- ultrasound ultraviolet


6. Suffixes
后缀
It is important to pronounce suffixes clearly, with the proper stress. Suffixes are almost unstressed. Say the vowel sound quickly and with your mouth almost closed, but pronounce the consonant sounds in these syllables distinctly.
后缀在发音时,清楚和适度的重音是很重要的。后缀差不多都是不重读的。在发后缀的音时,元音发音要快,口几乎是全闭着的,但后缀音节中的辅音发音要清晰。

○1 Noun suffixes 名词后缀

名词后缀 词例
-ance importance
-apher stenographer
-ate graduate
-ator senator
-ee employee
-ence occurrence
-ent current
-er driver
-eter thermometer
-ison unison
-ist socialist
-ity nationality
-ment government
-ogy biology
-sion expansion
-tion attention

○2 Adjective suffixes 形容词后缀

形容词后缀 词例
-able capable
-al musical
-ent current
-er braver
-est bravest
-ful helpful
-ian Canadian
-ible sensible
-ic automatic
-ical radical
-ier prettier
-iest silliest
-ior superior
-ive excessive
-le multiple
-ory sensory
-ous jealous

○3 Verb suffixes 动词后缀

动词后缀 词例
-ed wanted
-ing reading


○4 Adverb suffixes 副词后缀

副词后缀 词例
-ally practically
-ately privately
-ently permanently
-ly slowly
-ively competitively
-ously seriously


7. A certain group of verbs stress the second syllable while their corresponding noun forms are stressed on the first syllable.
有些单词的动词形式的重音在第二个音节,而名词形式的重音则在第一个音节。

作名词 作动词
combat combat
conduct conduct
conflict conflict
import import
incline incline
increase increase
record record
refund refund
subject subject
survey survey
suspect suspect

Your conduct is terrible.
You should conduct yourself more professionally.

We signed a contract to buy the house.
Now we have to contract an architect to remodel it.

The young boy's father wouldn't permit him to get a driver's permit.

I suspect he is one the of suspects.

There are other two-syllable verbs and nouns or adjectives spelled alike, but they do not follow this pattern. The pattern they follow is to be stressed on the same syllable, whichever that might be, first or second.
这条规则不适用于其它一些拼写相同的双音节动词、名词或形容词,这些单词在任何时候重音都是一样的。

surprise, report, diet, accent.

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