Grammar and Intonation 语法与语调
As you probably learned in your grammar studies, the verb tenses in English are very important. However, the confusing thing is that instead of putting the verb tenses on the peaks of a sentence, we throw them all deep down in the valleys. Let's look at each of the following 23 sentences.
Keys open locks
1. Keys open locks.
2. The keys open locks.
3. The keys open the locks.
4. are opening
The keys are opening the locks.
5. have opened
The keys've opened the locks.
6. had opened
The keys'd opened the locks.
7. will open
The keys will open the locks.
8. will have opened
The keys'll've opened the locks.
9. would open
The keys'd open the locks.
10. would have opened
The keys'd've opened the locks.
11. that have opened
The keys that've opened the locks
12. can open
The keys can open the locks.
13. can't open
The keys can't open the locks.
14. should open
The keys should open the locks.
15. should have opened
The keys should've opened the locks.
16. should not have opened
The keys shouldn't've opened the locks.
17. could open
The keys could open the locks.
18. could not open
The keys couldn't open the locks.
19. could have opened
The keys could've opened the locks.
20. could not have opened
The keys couldn't've opened the locks.
21. must have opened
The keys must've opened the locks.
22. have to open
The keys have to open the locks.
23. ought to open
The keys ought to open the locks.
1. I bought a sandwich.
2. I said I bought a sandwich.
3. I said I think I bought a sandwich.
4. I said I really think I bought a sandwich.
5. I said I really think I bought a chicken sandwich.
6. I said I really think I bought a chicken salad sandwich.
7. I said I really think I bought a half a chicken salad sandwich.
8. I said I really think I bought a half a chicken salad sandwich this afternoon.
9. I actually said I really think I bought a half a chicken salad sandwich this afternoon.
10. I actually said I really think I bought another half a chicken salad sandwich this afternoon. (OK. Take a deep breath.)
11. Can you believe I actually said I really think I bought another half a chicken salad sandwich this afternoon?
- Can't you help me with these boxes, Steve?
- No, I can't.
- Why not?
- They're too heavy. I hurt my back and I'm not supposed to lift anything heavy.
- Well...how am I going to get them upstairs?
- Call John and see if he'll help you!
- Hi, Carol. How are you?
- Fine, thanks. How are you Ms. Johnson?
- Fine. How's school these days?
- Oh...it's O.K. but we have too much homework!
- Are you going to the game?
- Yes, are you?
- No. I have to clean the garage.
- O.K...see you later.
- Bye, drive carefully!
- Where are you going, Mom?
- To the movies. Do you want to come?
- Oh... I'd love to, but I have to go to the library.
- The library! Wow! I'm really proud of you. Are you doing research?
- No... I'm going to pick up my friends. They need a ride home.
- Come live with me in the city. You'll have lots of fun.
- I don't like the city. It's too noisy. There's too much traffic and pollution, and there's no place to park. Why don't you come live with me in the country?
- I hate the country. It's too far away, and there's more traffic out there than in the city. Besides, there's nothing to do there. Don't you get bored?
- You're looking for an argument, aren't you? I can see we weren't meant for each other.
- Don't be silly! I think this is a perfect relationship. I really like living alone.