The U.S.Security strategy after the Cold War
--Interview with Former Secretary of National Defense, Dr. William Perry 访美国前国防部长威廉姆•佩里博士
MR. CHEN BOJIANG: As the Secretary of Defense, you raised the Prevent-Deter-Defeat Strategy1 as the U.S. security strategy after the Cold War. What is the main difference between this strategy and the Cold War strategy of deterrence? What were the main demands for the development of American armed forces in implementing the Prevent-Deter-Defeat Strategy?
DR. PERRY: I talked about Prevent-Deter-Defeat Strategy. The Cold War strategy was one of deterrence, in this case, the threat of the Soviet Union. And we built our nuclear forces and ground forces2 to deter the Soviet Union from using that threat. Whether or not they would have ever used it, we’ll never know now. But we did develop-and therefore we built these systems and made these deployments to deter them from using it. Today we do not see a threat to the survival of the United States. The Soviet Union is no more. Russia not only does not pose a threat but in fact they’re cooperating economically, militarily, and politically. We do not see them as a threat. We do not see China as a threat. We see both Russia and China as potential partners. So, today, we see no threats which require deterrence. The theory of preventive defense3 says however there are dangers in the world. The action which defense takes to forestall those dangers from becoming threats-I call preventive defense. We have a program in the United States called Nunn-Luger, named after two senators-in the Pentagon4 we call it the cooperative threat reduction program-we will cooperate with the Russians and Ukrainians and Kazahkstanis to reduce the nuclear weapon capability of all those countries as well as going on a parallel with the United States, and help the Russians put their residual nuclear weapons under better safeguard. When I was Secretary, I authorized $2 billion for the U.S. Defense Fund, to help the Russians and Kazahkstanis reduce their weapons of mass destruction-I consider that a very good investment. That is preventive in two senses: first of all, that promoted the evolution5 of Russia as an equal democracy with the United States, and secondly, it kept the residual nuclear weapons, and chemical weapons, I might say, under better control, so that they’re less likely to end up in the hands of a terrorist organization, which could have then become a threat to the United States. That’s preventing something from becoming a threat. Very different from the Cold War where we saw the threat-it already existed-and we applied deterrence. So, I think of three steps-programs that prevent this danger from becoming a threat-if these fail, then you need programs of deterrence-to stop that threat and if those fail, then you have to defeat the threats.
MR. CHEN: You pointed out that “the art of war requires secrecy and surprise and the art of peace requires openness and trust.” How can we encourage openness and trust between countries?
MR. PERRY: The key tenet of preventive defense is to develop a constructive engagement with China and with Russia. That would require openness. Openness is the key to promoting peace and security between our countries.
MR. CHEN: America has begun an in-depth discussion of the nation’s military needs for the next century. Last May and November, the Department of Defense issued the Report of the Quadrennial Defense Review6 and Defense Reform Initiative Report7. These reports raised the goals and measures of the development of national defense in the next century. What are your comments regarding these reports? How do you view the development of the international situation and U.S. military needs in the 21st century?
DR. PERRY: The Quadrennial Defense Review basically specifies the size and the structure of the American military forces to dealing with the kind of military problems we’ve talked about. First of all, there’s a certain amount of the defense research that should go to what I call preventive defense. Secondly, a very large part of the defense budget goes to dealing with regional threats-and examples used in the Quadrennial Defense Review were Desert Storm and the North Korean War-the two primary8 examples of where we faced the regional threat, And we have sized our conventional forces9, then to deal with a regional threat of that nature-so that we could win it quickly, decisively, and with minimal casualties. That’s sometimes called the 2MRC (Major Regional Contingency) strategy, but in this plan, it says you must have an adequate reserve force10 if you’re going to fight a war so that you’re not vulnerable to a second country taking advantage of you.
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS词汇提示：
1.The Prevent-Deter-Defeat Strategy 预防--威慑--击败战略
2.ground forces 地面部队
3.preventive defense 预先防御
4.Pentagon  五角大楼(美国防部所在地)
5.evolution  演变
6.the Report of the Quadrennial Defense Review《四年防务审查报告》
7.Defense Reform Initiative Report《国防防改革倡议报告》
8.primary  主要的
9.conventional forces 常规部队
10.reserve force 预备役部队
QUESTONS AFTER LISTENING 听后答题:
1.What strategy did Perry raise when he was the Secretary of Defense?
2.Which country was seen as a threat to the survival of the United States in the Cold War?
A.China. B.Soviet Union.
C.Cuba. D.North Korea.
3.How did the U.S. deter its adversary from using the threat?
A.To build nuclear forces.
B.To develop ground forces.
C.To build ground forces.
D.To build nuclear forces and ground forces.
4.Perry sees Russia as
A.A threat. B.A friend.
C.A partner. D.An adversary.
5.Perry’s theory of preventive defense says that
A.There are no dangers in the world.
B.There are no enemies in the world.
C.There are dangers in the world.
D.There are instabilities in the world.
6.What is the key tenet of preventive defense?
A.To develop new weapons.
B.To develop a constructive engagement with China and with Russia.
C.To strengthen alliances.
D.To maintain military presence.
7. What is the key to promote peace and security between two countries in Perry’s view?
C.Dialogue. D.The summit meeting.
8. What did the Department of Defense issue last May and November?
A.The Report of National Security Strategy.
B.The Report of Military Strategy.
C.The Report of East Asia Security Strategy.
D.The Report of the Quadrennial Defense Review and Defense Reform Initiative Report.
9. What did the Report of the Quadrennial Defense Review basically specify?
A.The size of the American military forces.
B.The structure of the American military forces.
C.The task of the American military forces.
D.The size and structure of the American military forces.
10. What is the 2MRC strategy?
A.2 Major Regional Contingency.
B.2 Major Regional Conflicts.
C.2 Major Regional Conferences.
D.2 Major Regional Countries.
KEYS TO THE QUESTIONS 参考答案：
１.d 2.b 3.d 4.c 5.c 6.b 7.a 8.d 9.d 10.a