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美国政要第1课

所属教程:美国政要

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The U.S.Security strategy after the Cold War
--Interview with Former Secretary of National Defense, Dr. William Perry 访美国前国防部长威廉姆•佩里博士
MR. CHEN BOJIANG: As the Secretary of Defense, you raised the Prevent-Deter-Defeat Strategy1 as the U.S. security strategy after the Cold War. What is the main difference between this strategy and the Cold War strategy of deterrence? What were the main demands for the development of American armed forces in implementing the Prevent-Deter-Defeat Strategy?
DR. PERRY: I talked about Prevent-Deter-Defeat Strategy. The Cold War strategy was one of deterrence, in this case, the threat of the Soviet Union. And we built our nuclear forces and ground forces2 to deter the Soviet Union from using that threat. Whether or not they would have ever used it, we’ll never know now. But we did develop-and therefore we built these systems and made these deployments to deter them from using it. Today we do not see a threat to the survival of the United States. The Soviet Union is no more. Russia not only does not pose a threat but in fact they’re cooperating economically, militarily, and politically. We do not see them as a threat. We do not see China as a threat. We see both Russia and China as potential partners. So, today, we see no threats which require deterrence. The theory of preventive defense3 says however there are dangers in the world. The action which defense takes to forestall those dangers from becoming threats-I call preventive defense. We have a program in the United States called Nunn-Luger, named after two senators-in the Pentagon4 we call it the cooperative threat reduction program-we will cooperate with the Russians and Ukrainians and Kazahkstanis to reduce the nuclear weapon capability of all those countries as well as going on a parallel with the United States, and help the Russians put their residual nuclear weapons under better safeguard. When I was Secretary, I authorized $2 billion for the U.S. Defense Fund, to help the Russians and Kazahkstanis reduce their weapons of mass destruction-I consider that a very good investment. That is preventive in two senses: first of all, that promoted the evolution5 of Russia as an equal democracy with the United States, and secondly, it kept the residual nuclear weapons, and chemical weapons, I might say, under better control, so that they’re less likely to end up in the hands of a terrorist organization, which could have then become a threat to the United States. That’s preventing something from becoming a threat. Very different from the Cold War where we saw the threat-it already existed-and we applied deterrence. So, I think of three steps-programs that prevent this danger from becoming a threat-if these fail, then you need programs of deterrence-to stop that threat and if those fail, then you have to defeat the threats.
MR. CHEN: You pointed out that “the art of war requires secrecy and surprise and the art of peace requires openness and trust.” How can we encourage openness and trust between countries?
MR. PERRY: The key tenet of preventive defense is to develop a constructive engagement with China and with Russia. That would require openness. Openness is the key to promoting peace and security between our countries.
MR. CHEN: America has begun an in-depth discussion of the nation’s military needs for the next century. Last May and November, the Department of Defense issued the Report of the Quadrennial Defense Review6 and Defense Reform Initiative Report7. These reports raised the goals and measures of the development of national defense in the next century. What are your comments regarding these reports? How do you view the development of the international situation and U.S. military needs in the 21st century?
DR. PERRY: The Quadrennial Defense Review basically specifies the size and the structure of the American military forces to dealing with the kind of military problems we’ve talked about. First of all, there’s a certain amount of the defense research that should go to what I call preventive defense. Secondly, a very large part of the defense budget goes to dealing with regional threats-and examples used in the Quadrennial Defense Review were Desert Storm and the North Korean War-the two primary8 examples of where we faced the regional threat, And we have sized our conventional forces9, then to deal with a regional threat of that nature-so that we could win it quickly, decisively, and with minimal casualties. That’s sometimes called the 2MRC (Major Regional Contingency) strategy, but in this plan, it says you must have an adequate reserve force10 if you’re going to fight a war so that you’re not vulnerable to a second country taking advantage of you.

WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS词汇提示:
1.The Prevent-Deter-Defeat Strategy 预防--威慑--击败战略
2.ground forces 地面部队
3.preventive defense 预先防御
4.Pentagon [] 五角大楼(美国防部所在地)
5.evolution [] 演变
6.the Report of the Quadrennial Defense Review《四年防务审查报告》
7.Defense Reform Initiative Report《国防防改革倡议报告》
8.primary [] 主要的
9.conventional forces 常规部队
10.reserve force 预备役部队

QUESTONS AFTER LISTENING 听后答题:
1.What strategy did Perry raise when he was the Secretary of Defense?
A.Prevent Strategy.
B.Deter Strategy.
C.Defeat Strategy.
D.Prevent-Deter-Defeat Strategy.
2.Which country was seen as a threat to the survival of the United States in the Cold War?
A.China. B.Soviet Union.
C.Cuba. D.North Korea.
3.How did the U.S. deter its adversary from using the threat?
A.To build nuclear forces.
B.To develop ground forces.
C.To build ground forces.
D.To build nuclear forces and ground forces.
4.Perry sees Russia as
A.A threat. B.A friend.
C.A partner. D.An adversary.
5.Perry’s theory of preventive defense says that
A.There are no dangers in the world.
B.There are no enemies in the world.
C.There are dangers in the world.
D.There are instabilities in the world.
6.What is the key tenet of preventive defense?
A.To develop new weapons.
B.To develop a constructive engagement with China and with Russia.
C.To strengthen alliances.
D.To maintain military presence.
7. What is the key to promote peace and security between two countries in Perry’s view?
A.Openness. B.Cooperation.
C.Dialogue. D.The summit meeting.
8. What did the Department of Defense issue last May and November?
A.The Report of National Security Strategy.
B.The Report of Military Strategy.
C.The Report of East Asia Security Strategy.
D.The Report of the Quadrennial Defense Review and Defense Reform Initiative Report.
9. What did the Report of the Quadrennial Defense Review basically specify?
A.The size of the American military forces.
B.The structure of the American military forces.
C.The task of the American military forces.
D.The size and structure of the American military forces.
10. What is the 2MRC strategy?
A.2 Major Regional Contingency.
B.2 Major Regional Conflicts.
C.2 Major Regional Conferences.
D.2 Major Regional Countries.

【参考译文】
冷战后美国的安全战略
陈伯江:在您担任国防部长期间, 曾提出把“预防-威慑-击败”作为冷战后美国的安全战略。这一战略与冷战时期美国奉行的威慑战略的主要区别是什么?实行“预防-威慑-击败”战略对美国军事力量的发展的主要要求是什么?
佩里:我谈到过“预防-威慑-击败”战略。冷战时期美国在面对苏联威胁的情况下采用了威慑战略,我们建立了核力量和地面力量用于威慑苏联,使之不能使用那种威胁对付我们。我们永远无法知道如果我们不实施威慑,他们是否会用那种威胁。但我们确实发展并建立了这些系统,并且部署它们用于威慑苏联,使之不敢使用他们的威胁。今天我们看不到这种对美国生存的威胁。苏联已不复存在。俄罗斯不仅不是威胁,而且事实上他们在经济上、军事上、政治上都在与我们合作。我们不再视其为威胁。我们也不把中国看作威胁。我们把俄罗斯和中国都看作潜在的伙伴。所以,今天我们看不到那种需要威慑的威胁。预先防御的理论认为,世界上总还存在着危险。我把采取防御行动、先发制人以免这些危险变为威胁称之为预先防御。在美国,我们有一个以两位参议员的名字命名的纳恩――卢格计划。在五角大楼,我们称之为“合作减少威胁”计划。按照这个计划,我们与俄罗斯、乌克兰和哈萨克斯坦就与美国平行进行的减少所有这些国家的核武器能力进行合作,并且帮助俄罗斯更加安全地保存剩余的核武器。在我任国防部长时,我曾为美国防务基金拨款20亿美元,用于帮助俄斯和哈萨克斯坦减少其大规模杀伤武器。我认为那是一项很好的投资。其预先防范的意义体现在两个方面:首先,促进了俄罗斯进行与美国同样的民主变革;其次,保持剩余的核武器和化学武器处于良好的控制之下,以使它们不致落入恐怖主义组织之手而变成对美国的威胁。这样就避免了某些因素变为威胁。今天的威胁与冷战时期有很大的不同,那时威胁的确存在,我们也运用了威慑。因此,我想到了三个步骤:首先是防止危险变成威胁的措施;如果措施失效了,那么你需要实施威慑以制止威胁;如果威慑无效,那么你就必须击败 些威胁。
陈:我注意到您曾在一篇文章中指出:“战争的艺术需要秘密和突然,而和平的艺术需要开放和信任”,怎样才能促进国家间的开放和信任?
佩里:预先防御的核心思想是发展与中国和俄罗斯的建设性接触。这将需要开放。开放是促进国家间和平与安全的关键。
陈:我注意到美国已经开始有关下个世纪国家军事需要的深入讨论。去年5月和11月,国防部先后发表了《四年防务审查报告》和《国防改革倡议报告》。上述报告提出了美国下个世纪国防发展的目标和措施,您对此有何评论?您怎样看待国际形势的发展和21世纪美国的安全需要?
佩里:《四年防务审查报告》基本上说明了为了对会付我们上面所谈到的那些军事问题所需要的美国军事力量的规模和结构。首先,是要把一定的防务研究投入到我们所说的预先防御。其次,防务预算的很大一部分将用于处理地区威胁。《四年防务审查报告》所用的例子是“沙漠风暴行动”和北朝鲜战争,这是我们面临的地区威胁的两个主要方面。我们已经确定了常规部队的规模,以便对付带有那种特点的地区威胁,从而使我们能以最少的伤亡快速赢得决定性的胜利。这也就是所谓的打赢“两场几乎同时发生的大规模地区冲突”的战略。《四年防务审查报告》还提出了必须有一友足够的预备役部队。这样你在进行一场战争的时候,就不会因第二个国家的乘机攻击而措手不及。

KEYS TO THE QUESTIONS 参考答案:
1.d 2.b 3.d 4.c 5.c 6.b 7.a 8.d 9.d 10.a

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