U.S. Foreign Relations
--Interview with Former National Security Advisor Dr. Anthony Lake (April 20, 1998) 访前总统国家安全事务肋理安东尼•莱克博士
MR. CHEN BOJIANG: How do you view the implications of the two triangular1 relationships, Sino-U.S.-Japan and Sino-U.S.-Taiwan, to the security situation of the Asia-Pacific region?
DR.LAKE: I’m afraid I anticipated2 again in my last question, but let me tell you what I repeatedly said when I was in Taiwan, which is that the Taiwanese have a deep security interest in the improving relationship between Washington and Beijing, because that helps produce stability and stability is in Taiwan’s interest. Stability allows economic advancement3 and social advancement for their people, however defined. And Taiwan has been doing very well in the last ten years, economically and in the reinforcement of their democracy. The Mainland is also doing very well economically and in other ways. All of this is based on stability. It is the same message for everybody, whether Japan or Russia or Beijing or Taipei. I think the future is very bright for all of Northeast Asia as long as there is stability, that’s the purpose of all of these triangular relationships.
MR. CHEN: In recent years, China and Russia have built a strategic partnership oriented towards the 21st century. At the same time, China is also making efforts to develop a constructive strategic partnership with the U.S. oriented towards the 21st century. What do you think of the Sino-U.S.-Russia relationship?
DR. LAKE: I would argue with some here in Washington who are very suspicious of the China-Russian relationship. I think all of these relationships, Moscow-Beijing, Moscow-Washington, Beijing-Washington are good. Strategic dialogues among each can help each understand the other’s purposes. It reduces the chances of miscalculations4. With the end of the Cold War, during the contemporary era at least, it is no longer necessary to calibrate5 those relationship in terms of whether any two are necessarily opposing the third. During the Cold War, there was an American and Chinese strategic interest in a closer cooperation against the polar bear6. That kind of thinking is no longer necessary. The more transparent7 each relationship is, the better, because that will reinforce confidence for each of us. Each of us sees two of the legs and doesn’t see the third. The more transparent all of this is, the less likely that suspicions about “the third leg” will get us back into a competitive triangular relationship rather than a stable one.
MR. CHEN: President Clinton announced that he would visit China in June, ahead of his original schedule. Does this mean that there are some changes to American policy towards China? How do you view the development of Sino-U.S. relations?
DR. LAKE: No, I don’t think this a reflection of any change in American policy. I think it is a reflection of the things that are going better. Moving the date up is welcome. I believe China-U.S. Summit meetings should be regular and not subject then to negotiation each year. To the degree they are respective scheduled, it takes them out of our respective politics. The summit meetings wouldn’t be seen as a barometer8 of the health of our relationship. It becomes simply a contribution to a healthy relationship.
MR. CHEN: According to media reports, France, Russia and Germany hold a summit in his month. Some believe that the symbolism of this summit is to balance the influence of the United States to Europe. What are your comments about this?
DR. LAKE: I have discussed this with a number of European diplomats, including British diplomats whose government was also not included in these meetings. Obviously we should always watch all of this very carefully, but I don’t think that Washington should see this as terribly threatening. Strategically, this is a part of a larger issue, of whether there is an American interest in a more integrated Europe. This is an issue that has been debated since the Kennedy administration first took it as American doctrine that a Europe that is coming together is essentially in American interest. At the time, largely in a Cold War context, a unified or integrated Europe would be seen as a better ally against the Soviets. But even in the wake of the Cold War, it would make Europe a bit easier for us to engage on NATO common issues, common security issues, such as Bosnia or NATO enlargement. So I think it’s to be welcomed and I do not believe that the realities of the coming decades would suggest that Europe is then going to go off on its own and sever security ties to the United States. I think those will remain strong and we should not be paranoid9 about a strengthening Europe. In fact, a Europe that is divided diplomatically is less able to make a significant contribution on issues like Bosnia. Europeans bearing more burdens rather than Washington, is in our interest.
MR. CHEN: There were two events that caught the attention of the international society last year: one was NATO enlargement in Europe and the other was the signing of the U.S.-Japanese Guidelines of Security Cooperation in Asia. Some thought that this was Cold War thinking. What is your opinion of NATO enlargement and the U.S.-Japanese Security Treaty?
DR. LAKE: Well, on NATO enlargement I think we have to be very clear about what the goal is. It is not to isolate or offend Russia, assuming that Russia continues to evolve in democratic directions and does not pose a threat to her neighbors. In fact, as the President has said, we believe that the enlargement of NATO over the course of a generation, can potentially include Russia and others, and become over time, not simply a defensive security alliance-a military alliance, but a broader security arrangement and institution that can help to integrate Russia and all of Europe: a more efficient and more powerful OSCE. On the U.S.-Japan security relationship, let me simply repeat what I said in my 1996 meetings in Beijing. It is very, very important that the PRC, and especially the Chinese military understand that the purpose of the American military presence in the Pacific is stability. And the second purpose is stability. And the third purpose is stability. That is the purpose-it is not containment. It is not to threaten anybody, it is stability. Ask yourself what would happen, for example, if there were a withdrawal of American military forces from Northeast Asia. The result almost certainly would be an arms race, possibly a nuclear arms race10, involving China, South Korea, North Korea and Japan. This would be in nobody’s interest. I think that’s an illustration of the stabilizing effect of the American presence. Or we could ask ourselves what might Japanese policies have looked like if there had not been an American security relationship with Japan fifty years ago. And I think the answer is, well we can’t know what the answer would be, but it is very likely that Japan would have developed a much greater military capacity or very different military doctrines had they not had the certainty of the American security tie. So these are illustrations of a central fact, which cannot be repeated too often: stability is the purpose of the American military presence and policy, which is good for the People’s Republic. It’s good for us. It’s good for Japan. It’s good for Taiwan. And it’s good for everybody.
MR. CHEN: How do you view the relationship between the means of diplomacy and the means of military? Some thought that the solution of the Iraqi crisis was a victory for diplomacy. Is that true?
DR. LAKE: No. It was a victory for diplomacy-but it was a victory for diplomacy because it was backed up by force. Kofi Annan said that his ability to gain that agreement in Baghdad rested on the very real threat of the use of force. Unhappily there are certain governments and leaders who only understand the use of force and that includes Saddam Hussein. It is better to succeed diplomatically through the threat of the use of force rather than through actual use. It was a good thing that Kofi Annan was able to pull that off.
MR. CHEN: Can you elaborate the relationship between the means of diplomacy and the means of military in general?
DR. LAKE: Until human nature changes there should be two rules. First, diplomacy is most effective when it is backed up by power. Rule two is that one should never use force unless one has exhausted all diplomatic avenues.
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS 词汇提示
1.triangular  a. 三角形的
2.anticipate  v. 预先提到
3.advancement  n. 发展
4.miscalculation  n. 误算，估错
5.calibrate  v. 校准
6.polar bear n. 北极熊（指苏联）
7.transparent  n.透明，透明度
8.barometer  n. 气压表
9.paranoid  a. 满怀疑虑的，过分妄想的
10.arms race n. 军备竞赛
QUESTIONS AFTER LISTENING听后答题:
1. Which two triangular relationships are there in the Asia-Pacific region?
A.Sino-Korea-Russia and Sino-U.S.-Russia.
B.Sino-U.S.-Russia and Sino-U.S.-Japan.
C.Sino-U.S.-Japan and Sino-U.S.-Taiwan.
D.Sino-Japan-Taiwan and Sino-U.S.-Japan.
2. What is vital important for the all of the triangular relationships in Dr. Lake’s view?
C.Human right. D.Stability.
3. What’s the effect of strategic dialogues according to Dr. Lake’s view?
A.It can help each understand the other’s purposes and reduce the chances of miscalculations.
B.It can avoid the conflicts.
C.It can enhance the friendship.
D.It can reduce the disputes.
4. What is the meaning of the phrase “the third leg”?
A.The third leg of the stool.
B.The third leg of the dog.
C.The third leg of the triangle.
D.The third leg of the triangular relationships.
5. What is Dr. Lake’s view about China-U.S. Summit meetings?
A.It is not very important for the mutual relationship.
B.It should be regular.
C.It should be held each year.
D.It should be held twice each year.
6. What’s the meaning of the phrase “in the wake of the Cold War”?
A.In the Cold War.
B.After the end of the Cold War.
C.During the Cold War.
D.Before the Cold War.
7. How did Dr. Lake think Europe would be going to do in the coming decades?
A.It would cut down the security ties with U.S..
B.It would keep the security ties with U.S..
C.It would keep apart from U.S..
D.It would eatablish the security ties with Russia.
8. What is the purpose of the U.S. military presence in the Asia-Pacific region on Dr. Lake’s words?
9. What did he mean when he said “there are certain government and leaders who only understand the use of force.”
A.He meant they would use force to resolve disputes.
B.He meant they would not use force to resolve disputes.
C.He meant it was unnecessary for the use of force in resolving disputes.
D.It means it is harmful for the use of force in resolving disputes.
10. What kind of means should be taken in resolving Iraqi crisis in Dr. Lake’s view?
C.Other secret means.
D.Diplomacy backed up by power.
KYS TO THE QUESTIONS 参考答案：
1.c 2.d 3.a 4.d 5.b 6.b 7.b 8.d 9.a 10.d