The Gulf War & RMA
--Interview with Dr. Eliot Cohen, Professor of Strategic Studies at Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University (February 18, 1998) 访霍普金斯大学尼采国际研究生院教授爱略特•科恩博士
MR. CHEN BOJIANG: The U.S. began the discussion of military revolution and future warfare just after the Gulf War in 1991. Currently the U.S. is planning another military attack on Iraq because of the weapons inspection1 crisis. In the context of military revolution, what are some of the changes in strategy and operational methods or tactics the U.S. plans to use in the coming attack on Iraq?
DR. COHEN: I’m not sure there’s much that I can add that’s not in the article. If I would, it would probably be classified-and I couldn’t share it. I think the biggest changes are going to be in the kinds of weapons that we use-all precision-guided weapons and I also suspect that the intelligence base will be better than it was. I’m not sure that there’ll be huge differences in operational technique2 -it will be more focused on what we called, at the time of the Gulf War, strategic targets. But I’m not sure there will be huge operational level changes. I don’t know about those and I don’t want to know about those.
MR.CHEN: What is the topmost achievement or theoretical breakthrough3 as a result of the discussion on the RMA up to now?
DR. COHEN: I’m not sure that there’s been a breakthrough. I think we are still at a very early stage, theoretically. Americans, to some extent are not as theoretically inclined as perhaps we should be.
MR. CHEN: What are the possible implications4 of the RMA on military strategy and national defense policy of the U.S.?
DR. COHEN: Well, I think one possibility is obviously it could-I think it already has, and will continue to-give the U.S. tremendous5 military potential and much more military potential than that of various opponents. I think one of the biggest change that we will see, and have already seen, is that military organizations will begin to look very different from one another. They will be much more tailored to their geographic and political circumstances. And it will be much harder to assess them and to compare them.
MR. CHEN: What are the main trends in the development of the RMA?
DR. COHEN: I think there are a number of trends. One very basic one is toward the end of the mass army6, that is to say the importance of large numbers of soldiers. I think that’s really gone down very substantially. I think towards the creation of network organizations rather than hierarchical organizations which is a profound change to the use of long range precision strike. Obviously, there’s a weapons technology which is very much the direction which things are going and I think in general towards moving away from large-manned platforms of the traditional type. I think it’ll be a long sunset, but we will, I think see the sunset of the named fighter bomber. I suspect tanks will probably look very different 20 years from now than they do today. And some of the large platforms like the aircraft carriers may not survive in the forms that we’ve known them. I think those are some of the big changes.
MR. CHEN: In one of your articles, you, and many other experts, including those on the National Defense Panel, argue that the Pentagon’s “two-war strategy” is not necessary. Therefore, is the U.S. wasting valuable time by applying the effects of the RMA to this strategy?
DR. COHEN: I would put it differently. I would say that by pursuing the two-war strategy, we’re denying ourselves to devote adequate resources to the RMA, because the “two-war strategy” tends to give us rather large force-structure focused on today’s technology. And what is more important, I think, is a longer-term research and development efforts.
MR. CHEN: What benefits might the U.S. expect to reap from a more focused attempt to nurture7 the RMA?
DR. COHEN: I think there’re two. First in general, the U.S. benefits from being the militarily predominant power. That’s-the RMA will help ensure that. But I think the other reason is more defense-the thing about the information technologies is that they’re truly available to everybody and since that is the case I can easily imagine either states or non-states trying to compete with the U.S., not head-to-head, not aircraft carrier-to-aircraft carrier, but to acquire the ability to deny the U.S. the ability to operate freely in various parts of the world. And to that end, I think it’s important for us to always keep quite a substantial8 advantage.
MR. CHEN: How do you view the essence of the RMA?
DR. COHEN: I think the essence of RMA will be some very large changes in the way the military’s organized and operates.
MR. CHEN: Could you give me some comments on the next direction of the research of the RMA?
DR. COHEN: As I said, I think the biggest issues will be experimentation-what’s more important now, either in research and development or theory - will be trying different kinds of forces, different kinds of operational concepts9. I think that’s the next task and not sitting around and thinking about it. It’s going to be trying to go out in the field and seeing what one can do.
MR. CHEN: What are the main factors driving the RMA?
DR. COHEN: I think the information revolution is a very big part of it. I also think the end of the Cold War is very important. It creates a very different international environment with the U.S. thinking about very different kinds of threats and that makes it possible at some level, to start over again. There is an important geopolitical element to it as well. I think for the U.S. for example, we’re increasingly aware that all the military has to be expeditionary10. During the Cold War the army and air force thought of itself as operating from Europe. And I don’t think that’s as nearly as much the case.
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS 词汇提示
1.inspection  n.核查
2.operational technique 作战技术
3.breakthrough  n.突破
4.implication  n. 含义
5.tremendous  n. 巨大的
6.mass army 大规模的军队
7.nurture  v.培育
8.substantial  a.实质性的
9.operational concept 作战概念
10.expeditionary  a.远征的
QUESTIONS AFTER LISTENING 听后答题：
1. When did the U.S. begin the discussion of the military revolution according to Dr. Cohen?
A.In 1997. B.In 1989.
C.In 1995. D.In 1991.
2. What are the biggest changes in the kinds of weapons that the U.S. plans to use in the coming attack on Iraq in Dr. Cohen’s view?
A.All weapons that U.S. use will be precision-guided weapons.
B.All weapons that U.S. use will be strategic weapons.
C.Only small part of weapons that U.S. use will be precision-guided weapons.
D.Only small part of weapons that U.S. use will be strategic weapons.
3. What was the obvious implications of the RMA on military strategy and national defese policy of the U.S. according to Dr. Cohen?
A.It could give the U.S. tremendous economic interests.
B.It could give the U.S. tremendous military potential and much more military potential than that of various opponents.
C.It could give the U.S. tremendous political interests.
D.It could give the U.S. tremendous cultural interests.
4. What is the basic trend of the RMA?
A.It is toward the end of the mass destruction weapons.
B.It is toward the end of the mass army.
C.It is toward the end of the mass conflicts.
D.It is toward the end of the nuclear war.
5. What was Dr. Cohen’s view on large-manned platform?
A.It will keep with the traditional type.
B.It will move away from the traditional type in a long time.
C.It will move away from the traditional type very soon.
D.It will only use for 20 years.
6. What kind of strategy was criticized by Dr. Cohen?
7. Why did Dr. Cohen criticize the two-war strategy?
A.Because the strategy tends to give the U.S. rather large force-structure focused on today’s technology.
B.Because it tends to use the nuclear weapons.
C.Because it tends to develop unmanned aerial vehicle.
D.Because I tends to deploy a constellation of sensors.
8. What will be the essence of the RMA according to Dr Cohen?
A.It will be some very large changes in the way the military’s organized and operates.
B.It will be some very large changes in the way the weapons develop.
C.It will be some very large changes in the way the forces are employed.
D.It will be some very large changes in the way of operations.
9. What was Dr. Cohen’s comment on the next direction of the research of the RMA?
A.The biggest issues will be the expenditure.
B.It will be the concepts.
C.It will be the experimentation.
D.It will be the organization.
10. What are the main factors of driving the RMA in Dr. Cohen’s view?
A.They are the political democracy and economic integrity.
B.They are the information revolution, international environment and geopolitical element.
C.They are the information revolution and cultural revolution.
D.They are the economic globalization and information revolution.
KEYS TO THE QUESTIONS 参考答案：
1.d 2.a 3.b 4.b 5.b 6.c 7.a 8.a 9.c 10.b