DOD & RMA
Interview with Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, Dr. James N. Miller, jr. (May 14, 1998) 访美国国防部助理国防部长帮办小詹姆斯•米勒博士
MR. CHEN BOJIANG: I feel greatly honored to have the opportunity to interview you today. This opportunity not only gives me the chance to gain your insights, but also gives me the encouragement to try my best in promoting Sino-U.S. military exchanges.
After the Gulf War1, the United States has been pursuing a more focused attempt to nurture the revolution in military affairs. How do you view the revolution in military affairs? How will DOD2 continue to promote the development of the revolution in military affairs?
DR. JAMES N. MILLER: There are multiple views, internationally and domestically, about whether there is a revolution or an evolution in military affairs. I think that it is fairly clear that the accumulation of technological improvements and new operational concepts and organizational change, which are the three components that we see in a revolution in military affairs, are proceeding fairly rapidly. I attempt to avoid the argument of whether it is a revolution or an evolution, but the changes over time have been both dramatic and important. The facilitator of this revolution in military affairs is technology, and particularly information technology. And a first glimpse was evident in both the command and control and the precision guided weapons that were used in the Gulf War. The war was clearly a big impetus to further thinking in the U.S. about the RMA.
The roots of thinking about the RMA obviously precede the Gulf War, with much of the early and best thinking in the U.S. done by Andy Marshall, Director of Net Assessment3, one of the first to analyze the military technical revolution, as the Soviets had called it, or the revolution of military affairs as we’ve called it in the United States for a number of years. But it’s clear that not just the United States, but those who would exploit information technology and other technologies, are moving towards the possibility of more rapid, more efficient operations.
And now to the steps that DOD has taken to promote the development of the RMA. First organizationally, the Secretary has identified it as a high priority, as have the previous Chairman and the current Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The vision document that is serving as a template4 for that, as you know, is Joint Vision 20105. there are aspects of the Revolution in Military Affairs that go well beyond 2010, certainly, but that’s a key template for the department’s efforts right now. Each of the services6, as you know, in addition to continuing to purchase new technologies and new equipment, has its own analysis and experimentation effort. The Marines call it the Hunter Warrior Series7, and they are currently in the Urban Warfare phase of it. The Army has Force 21, The Army After Next games as well, and the Air Force has its war games and is now developing an experimentation plan that will start in a few months. Similarly for the Navy, with efforts addressing both near-term and long-term time frames. Those service efforts are very strong and it is very important that they continue. The services have begun to work closely together. For example, the Army and Marine Corps have partnered together in word on urban operations, or MOUT-Military operations in Urban Terrain-and the Navy and the Marine Corps for example, have partnered on the Marine Corps’ operational maneuver from the sea. I expect the services to work together increasingly over time to develop and explore innovative approaches to key national security and military challenges. Now, one of the more recent developments is to set up - or to take the first steps to set up-an effort at joint concept development and joint experimentation.
Within the next several weeks, in fact, the Secretary is likely to designate the United States Atlantic Command (ACOM) as joint concept developer and experimenter. That is likely in the next couple of weeks, and it’s something that’s been discussed at the highest levels. The department is moving very rapidly. Only a couple of weeks ago, the Defense Resources Board8 met and discussed whether ACOM should be designated as joint experimenter, what its specific responsibilities would be and how they would relate to service activities, how it would affect future requirements, future acquisitions, future concepts of operations and doctrine and so on. The group made a recommendation that we proceed, and the Secretary is likely to act formally on that recommendation very soon.
As you know, the department has also a very robust science and technology effort. A number of years ago, a process of Advanced Concept Technology Developments (ACTDs) and Advanced Technology Developments (ATDs) were put in place. The ACTDs in particular can be seen as many concept development experiments in many cases, focusing on the relatively near term, three or four-year challenges. I think we have, with the service efforts and the emerging joint efforts, complemented by Andy Marshall and his extensive word in examining the long-term transformation, the basis for systematic and systemic changes in the U.S. military in the coming years.
MR. CHEN: How is the American future development of national defense related with the revolution in military affairs? How do you think the revolution in military affairs influences the development of national defense?
DR. MILLER: The way that we visualize9 the process working is that there are three broad steps to implementing the Revolution in military Affairs. (I’m not talking in this case about working closely with allies and having discussions with other nations as well, which is an important part, but will focus for now on the internal aspects.) First is the concepts and technology development: new operational concepts, new organizational concepts, and how they can exploit new technologies. This effort includes studies, analyses, and war games10 -as well as technology word. There is then the actual experimentation effort, which may be command post exercises or war games, or may involve forces in the field, or may rely almost exclusively on simulation and modeling.
And the third part is then, after concept and technology development, after the experimentation is to undertake changes in force structure, doctrine and so on.
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS 词汇提示
1.the Gulf War 海湾战争
2.DOD (Department of Defense)（美）国防部
3.director of Net Assessment （美国防部）基本评估办公室主任
4.template  n.模式，蓝本
5.Joint Vision 2010《2010年联合构想》
6.service  n.军种
7.the Hunter Warrior Series“狩猎武士系列”
8.the Defense Resources Board 国防资源委员会
9.visualize  v. 想像，设想
10.war game 作战模拟
QUESTIONS AFTER LISTENING KR 听后答题:
1. Which three components are there in the RMA?
A.The economical integration, new security concepts and new operational concepts.
B.The new security concepts, technological improvements and operational concepts.
C.Technological improvements, new operational concepts and organizational change.
D.New educational concepts, technological improvements and organizational change.
2. Which war was a big impetus to further thinking in the U.S. about the RMA?
A.The Korea War. B.The Gulf War.
C.The Vietnam War. D.The War in Haiti.
3. What was the template for the RMA?
A.The Hunter Warrior Series.
B.The Army After Next.
C.Military Operations in Urban Terrain.
D.Joint Vision 2010.
4. What is one of the more recent development in the RMA?
A.To set up a facility for urban operations training.
B.To set up an effort at joint concept development and joint experimentation.
C.To reorganize the command system.
D.To purchase new technologies and equipment.
5. Which command was likely to be designated as joint concept developer and experimenter?
A.The U.S. Atlantic Command.
B.The U.S. South Command.
C.The U.S. Pacific Command.
D.The U.S. Center Command.
6. What did the ACTDs(Advanced Concept Technology Developments) focus on?
A.It focused on the future acquisitions.
B.It focused on the training of urban operations.
C.It focused on the relatively near term, three or four year challenges.
D.It focused on the new technology development.
7. How many broad steps are there to implement the RMA?
A.Four. B.Six. C.Three. D.Five.
8. What is the first step to implement the RMA?
A.The change of war games.
B.The concepts and technology development.
C.The change of training concepts.
D.The change of old organizational system.
9. What is the second step to implement the RMA?
A.The actual experimentation effort.
B.The setting up of new organizational system.
C.The new technologies exploitation.
D.The development of the new military doctrine.
10. What is the third step to implement the RMA?
A.To build up new training centers.
B.To purchase new equipments.
C.To establish a new research center on RMA.
D.To undertake changes in force structure, doctrine and so on.
KEYS TO THE QUESTIONS 参考答案：
1.c 2.b 3.d 4.b 5.a 6.c 7.c 8.b 9.a 10.d