英语演讲 学英语,练听力,上听力课堂! 注册 登录
> 英语演讲 > 英语演讲mp3 > 美国政要 >  列表

美国政要第8课

所属教程:美国政要

浏览:

随身学
扫描二维码方便学习和分享
http://online2.tingclass.net/lesson/shi0529/0001/1093/1_8.mp3
http://image.tingclass.net/statics/js/2012

DOD & RMA
Interview with Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, Dr. James N. Miller, jr. (May 14, 1998) 访美国国防部助理国防部长帮办小詹姆斯•米勒博士
MR. CHEN BOJIANG: I feel greatly honored to have the opportunity to interview you today. This opportunity not only gives me the chance to gain your insights, but also gives me the encouragement to try my best in promoting Sino-U.S. military exchanges.
After the Gulf War1, the United States has been pursuing a more focused attempt to nurture the revolution in military affairs. How do you view the revolution in military affairs? How will DOD2 continue to promote the development of the revolution in military affairs?
DR. JAMES N. MILLER: There are multiple views, internationally and domestically, about whether there is a revolution or an evolution in military affairs. I think that it is fairly clear that the accumulation of technological improvements and new operational concepts and organizational change, which are the three components that we see in a revolution in military affairs, are proceeding fairly rapidly. I attempt to avoid the argument of whether it is a revolution or an evolution, but the changes over time have been both dramatic and important. The facilitator of this revolution in military affairs is technology, and particularly information technology. And a first glimpse was evident in both the command and control and the precision guided weapons that were used in the Gulf War. The war was clearly a big impetus to further thinking in the U.S. about the RMA.
The roots of thinking about the RMA obviously precede the Gulf War, with much of the early and best thinking in the U.S. done by Andy Marshall, Director of Net Assessment3, one of the first to analyze the military technical revolution, as the Soviets had called it, or the revolution of military affairs as we’ve called it in the United States for a number of years. But it’s clear that not just the United States, but those who would exploit information technology and other technologies, are moving towards the possibility of more rapid, more efficient operations.
And now to the steps that DOD has taken to promote the development of the RMA. First organizationally, the Secretary has identified it as a high priority, as have the previous Chairman and the current Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The vision document that is serving as a template4 for that, as you know, is Joint Vision 20105. there are aspects of the Revolution in Military Affairs that go well beyond 2010, certainly, but that’s a key template for the department’s efforts right now. Each of the services6, as you know, in addition to continuing to purchase new technologies and new equipment, has its own analysis and experimentation effort. The Marines call it the Hunter Warrior Series7, and they are currently in the Urban Warfare phase of it. The Army has Force 21, The Army After Next games as well, and the Air Force has its war games and is now developing an experimentation plan that will start in a few months. Similarly for the Navy, with efforts addressing both near-term and long-term time frames. Those service efforts are very strong and it is very important that they continue. The services have begun to work closely together. For example, the Army and Marine Corps have partnered together in word on urban operations, or MOUT-Military operations in Urban Terrain-and the Navy and the Marine Corps for example, have partnered on the Marine Corps’ operational maneuver from the sea. I expect the services to work together increasingly over time to develop and explore innovative approaches to key national security and military challenges. Now, one of the more recent developments is to set up - or to take the first steps to set up-an effort at joint concept development and joint experimentation.
Within the next several weeks, in fact, the Secretary is likely to designate the United States Atlantic Command (ACOM) as joint concept developer and experimenter. That is likely in the next couple of weeks, and it’s something that’s been discussed at the highest levels. The department is moving very rapidly. Only a couple of weeks ago, the Defense Resources Board8 met and discussed whether ACOM should be designated as joint experimenter, what its specific responsibilities would be and how they would relate to service activities, how it would affect future requirements, future acquisitions, future concepts of operations and doctrine and so on. The group made a recommendation that we proceed, and the Secretary is likely to act formally on that recommendation very soon.
As you know, the department has also a very robust science and technology effort. A number of years ago, a process of Advanced Concept Technology Developments (ACTDs) and Advanced Technology Developments (ATDs) were put in place. The ACTDs in particular can be seen as many concept development experiments in many cases, focusing on the relatively near term, three or four-year challenges. I think we have, with the service efforts and the emerging joint efforts, complemented by Andy Marshall and his extensive word in examining the long-term transformation, the basis for systematic and systemic changes in the U.S. military in the coming years.
MR. CHEN: How is the American future development of national defense related with the revolution in military affairs? How do you think the revolution in military affairs influences the development of national defense?
DR. MILLER: The way that we visualize9 the process working is that there are three broad steps to implementing the Revolution in military Affairs. (I’m not talking in this case about working closely with allies and having discussions with other nations as well, which is an important part, but will focus for now on the internal aspects.) First is the concepts and technology development: new operational concepts, new organizational concepts, and how they can exploit new technologies. This effort includes studies, analyses, and war games10 -as well as technology word. There is then the actual experimentation effort, which may be command post exercises or war games, or may involve forces in the field, or may rely almost exclusively on simulation and modeling.
And the third part is then, after concept and technology development, after the experimentation is to undertake changes in force structure, doctrine and so on.

WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS 词汇提示
1.the Gulf War 海湾战争
2.DOD (Department of Defense)(美)国防部
3.director of Net Assessment (美国防部)基本评估办公室主任
4.template [] n.模式,蓝本
5.Joint Vision 2010《2010年联合构想》
6.service [] n.军种
7.the Hunter Warrior Series“狩猎武士系列”
8.the Defense Resources Board 国防资源委员会
9.visualize [] v. 想像,设想
10.war game 作战模拟

QUESTIONS AFTER LISTENING KR 听后答题:
1. Which three components are there in the RMA?
A.The economical integration, new security concepts and new operational concepts.
B.The new security concepts, technological improvements and operational concepts.
C.Technological improvements, new operational concepts and organizational change.
D.New educational concepts, technological improvements and organizational change.
2. Which war was a big impetus to further thinking in the U.S. about the RMA?
A.The Korea War. B.The Gulf War.
C.The Vietnam War. D.The War in Haiti.
3. What was the template for the RMA?
A.The Hunter Warrior Series.
B.The Army After Next.
C.Military Operations in Urban Terrain.
D.Joint Vision 2010.
4. What is one of the more recent development in the RMA?
A.To set up a facility for urban operations training.
B.To set up an effort at joint concept development and joint experimentation.
C.To reorganize the command system.
D.To purchase new technologies and equipment.
5. Which command was likely to be designated as joint concept developer and experimenter?
A.The U.S. Atlantic Command.
B.The U.S. South Command.
C.The U.S. Pacific Command.
D.The U.S. Center Command.
6. What did the ACTDs(Advanced Concept Technology Developments) focus on?
A.It focused on the future acquisitions.
B.It focused on the training of urban operations.
C.It focused on the relatively near term, three or four year challenges.
D.It focused on the new technology development.
7. How many broad steps are there to implement the RMA?
A.Four. B.Six. C.Three. D.Five.
8. What is the first step to implement the RMA?
A.The change of war games.
B.The concepts and technology development.
C.The change of training concepts.
D.The change of old organizational system.
9. What is the second step to implement the RMA?
A.The actual experimentation effort.
B.The setting up of new organizational system.
C.The new technologies exploitation.
D.The development of the new military doctrine.
10. What is the third step to implement the RMA?
A.To build up new training centers.
B.To purchase new equipments.
C.To establish a new research center on RMA.
D.To undertake changes in force structure, doctrine and so on.

【参考译文】
美国国防部与军事革命
陈伯江:今天有机会采访您,我感到非常荣幸。这一机会不仅使我能直接听取您的意见,而且也将帮助我为促进中美军事交流尽一份力量。
海湾战争之后,美国一直在着力培育一场军事革命,您怎样看待军事革命?国防部将如何继续推动军事革命的发展?
米勒:对于究竟是否有一场军事上的革命或“进化”,国际上和美国国内都有各种不同观点。我认为我们在一场军事革命中可以看到的三个方面,正在以很快的速度发展,这一点是相当清楚的,这三个方面即技术进步的累积、新的作战概念以及编制上的变化。我想避开这究竟是一场革命还是一种“进化”的争论,但要承认已经发生的种种变化既非常之显著,又很重要。这场军事革命的“推进器”是技术,特别是信息技术。而且首先显现出革命性变化的是指挥与控制和精确制导武器这两个方面,在海湾战争中已经看到了这一点。很明显,这场战争对美国进一步思考军事革命是一个很大的推动因素。
有关军事革命的思考显然在海湾战争之前就开始了。美国较早关注并对这一问题作了深入思考的是国防部基本评估办公室主任安德鲁•马歇尔,他是最早对苏联人所说的军事技术革命也就是近几年来被美国人称作军事革命进行分析的人之一。然而很清楚,不只是美国,所有想要充分利用信息技术和其它技术的国家,都正在寻求更快、更有效地实施作战的可能性。
现在我来谈谈美国国防部为推动军事革命的发展所采取的步骤。首先从组织领导上来说,国防部长科恩像参联会的前主席和现主席一样,一直把军事革命看作需要最优先考虑的问题。正如你所了解的。正在用作军事革命的“蓝本”的构想文件是《2010年联合构想》。该文件所说的军事革命的许多方面,确实已远远超出了2010年,但这个文件是国防部目前种种努力的一个关键“蓝本”。
正如你所了解的,各个军种除了继续购买新技术和新装备外,还有自己的分析和试验计划。海陆战队称之为“狩猎武士系列”研究,目前这一研究进入到城市作战阶段。陆军进行“21世纪陆军”以及“后天的陆军”的模拟试验与研究。空军有各种他们自己的作战模拟研究项目,目前正在制定试验计划,将在几个月后开始实施。海军也是如此,正着眼于近期和远期两个时间段进行研究。
军种在研究军事革命方面下了很大的功夫,继续进行这些研究非常重要。各军种已开始密切协作。例如,陆军与海军陆战队已在共同研究城市作战问题,或叫做“城区地形中的军事行动”;再比如,海军和海军陆战队已在共同研究“海军陆战队由海向陆作战机动”问题。我认为各军种在今后会进行更多的共同研究,研究和探索解决重大国家安全和军事问题的创新方法。现在,最新的发展之一,是着手进行(或者说采取第一批步骤着手进行)联合概念发展和联合试验。
事实上,在今后几个星期之内,国防部长可能将指定美国大西洋总部作为主管联合概念发展和试验的单位。这可能就是今后几个星期的事,并且它已通过最高层的讨论。国防部将很快办理这件事。仅一、二星期之前,国防资源委员会开会讨论了大西洋总部是否应当被指定为负责联合试验的单位、其具体职责是什么、这些职责怎样与各军种的活动相关联、这将会对未来的需求、采购、作战概念和军事理论带来什么影响等问题。该委员会建议我们按原定计划实施,国防部长可能很快会采纳这一建议。
正如你们所了解的,国防部还有一个非常有活力的科学与技术发展计划。几年前,我们开始实施“先进概念技术发展”和“先进技术发展”计划。“先进概念技术发展”计划在许多情况下可被看作许多概念的发展试验,其重点放在相对短期,如3或4年内的挑战上。通过各军种的努力以及他在评估长期转变方面所做的大量工作,我认为我们已经具备了今后几年在美军中进行有条不紊的系统变革的基础。
陈:美国的未来发展怎样与军事革命相联系?您认为军事革命对美国的国防发展有什么影响
米勒:我们设想军事革命的实行有三个主要的步骤(我将不谈与盟国密切合作的情况,也不谈与其他国家的讨论,尽管这也是重要的组成部分。我重点谈美国国内的情况。)首先是各种概念和技术的发展:新的作战概念;新的编制概念;以及它们如何运用新技术。这一步骤包括各种研究、分析和作战模拟、以及技术工作。接下来的第二步是实际的试验,可能是指挥所演习或作战模拟;也可能包括野战演习;也可能主要依靠模拟和模型等。
第一步是提出概念和发展技术,第二步是进行试验,然后是第三步。即切实改变部队结构、作战理论等等。

KEYS TO THE QUESTIONS 参考答案:
1.c 2.b 3.d 4.b 5.a 6.c 7.c 8.b 9.a 10.d

内容来自 听力课堂网:http://www.tingclass.net/show-6093-27881-1.html
用手机学英语,请加听力课堂微信公众号:tingclass123
用户搜索

疯狂英语 英语语法 新概念英语 走遍美国 四级听力 英语音标 英语入门 发音 美语 四级 新东方 七年级 赖世雄 zero是什么意思

订阅每日学英语:

  • 频道推荐
  • |
  • 全站推荐
  • 广播听力
  • |
  • 推荐下载
  • 网站推荐
0.093750