The U.S. Army in Joint Operation
--Interview with Lieutenant General (Re.) Jay M. Garner, the Assistant Vice Chief of Staff of the Army (May 18, 1998) 访美国陆军前副参谋长助理杰伊•加纳中将(退役)
MR. CHEN BOJIANG: What is the contribution of the Army to future joint operations1? What new changes will arise in the relationship between the Army and other services in future joint operations?
MR GARNER: What changes? Well, I think, the biggest change is in how far you can shoot and how much information you have. What’s happened today is all the services on the battlefield, get the same information about the same time. No one gets any more information. The Air Force and the Navy don’t get any more information or any better information than the Army. The Army doesn’t get any more information or any better information than the Air Force and the Navy. So, we all have the same information. That means you can all develop the same targets. There was a time before when only the deep targets were seen by the Air Force and only the surface Naval targets were seen by the Navy. Everybody sees the same target list at the same time now, so, the Army, more and more, every year, can shoot deeper and deeper. I mean, this year, we’ll hundred kilometers. In future years, it will be over four hundred kilometers. So, what it means is the area of controlled by the Army commander is expanding greatly. what is means to the Air Force now is that the Air Force now doesn’t have to spend as many sorties working the close air support. They can go deeper and do more strategic work. We spent a lot of sorties in the past with the Air Force working the ground from say fifteen kilometers to a hundred kilometers deep. They don’t need to do that. They don’t have to do that. We can do that for ourselves. I mean, we see the battlefield. Our missiles are more accurate than airplanes. So, what we need to do now is expand the area of operations of the land components-The surface commanders, both the Nacy and the Army surface commanders. Then free up2 those aircraft that used to work close air support to go deeper and do much more work, strategic work, than they did before. I think that’s the biggest difference.
MR. CHEN: What is your opinion on information superiority in the future joint operation?
MR. GARNER: Well, I think that there’s big difference right now between U.S. forces and other forces in terms of information superiority. But, that window is going to close. Fifteen or twenty years from now, our enemies will have as much information as we have. So, the skill in the future will not be how you use information against your enemy. It’s how you can take his information away from him.
MR. CHEN: In future Joint Operations, how will former operational arts3 such as Centers of Gravity4 and Decisive Points, Simultaneity and Depth, Timing and Tempo, and so forth, change?
MR. GARNER: You always have a center of gravity if you’re an enemy. You have one yourself and your enemy has one. So, identifying the center of gravity will still be important. The difference is how quickly you get to that center of gravity now. How fast can you do that? Hopefully, as you go into Army After Next, as you go into the Revolution in Military Affairs, you will be able to reach the enemy center of gravity much, much faster than you were able to in the past. As long as he doesn’t have an asymmetric5 way to keep you from that.
MR. CHEN: Logistics is a growing concern for large army deployments. How does the U.S. Army address this challenge?
Mr. GARNER: Well, logistics has been a problem for five thousand years. It will always be a problem. The only way to begin to try to overcome the logistics problem is in your platforms. If you begin to be able to predict when things will wear out, so that you can have some sort of predictive analysis for support. In other words, I know that, in my tank, my engine is going to wear out probably next week sometime. The logisticians, they begin moving the new engine for me. You have digital electronics in there so when something happens to the vehicle, the logistician automatically knows. I don’t have to call him and tell him. He automatically knows that. And, he begins to immediately react to that. You have more fuel efficient vehicles, so that you have to move less fuel around the battlefield. But, you’ll always have the problems with things like water and food. Takes a lot of water for an Army and it takes a lot of food for an Army. What we’re talking about now is just in time logistics, which means we don’t move a lot of logistics. We predict what we’ll need and only move what we think we’re going to need. The ability to track where all the items you need are through stages, by putting a chip on whatever it is you’re moving. You’ll always know where it is in the pipeline. But, that’s a long ways off. We talk about it now, we’re getting better at it, but logistics will remain a problem in the future. It will always be a problem.
MR. CHEN: What changes do you predict will arise in the roles and mission of the Army in the post-Cold War? What efforts do the Army need to enact in order to meet these changes?
MR. GARNER: I don’t think you’ll see any changes in roles and missions. You know, the mission of the Army is to fight sustained6 land combat. That isn’t going to change. That will stay its mission. There’s a number of different roles that they’ll have to take on, in order to do that. But I think you’ll find, over the next ten or fifteen years, that most of the emphasis will be at the lower a spectrum of the spectrum of war. You know, peacekeeping operations7, more humanitarian8 operations, that type of thing. There will be some things in the middle of the scale. But, I don’t think many. I think the danger is not looking, not focusing on the upper end of the scale, because you’re doing of many things down at the bottom of the scale. Because you never know when, one day, you’ll have to fight another big war. And, you can never lose focus of that. But, it’s easy during this period to lose focus of that and only focus on the things like Bosnia, Rwanda, Haiti, Somalia that type thing.
MR. CHEN: Could you give me a brief introduction to the structure of research agencies and organizations in the Army? What is the relationship between them?
MR. GARNER: The research agencies? Oh, there’s a lot of them. In each one of our posts, that is a development post9, we have a research and development center there. For example, take Huntsville. Huntsville is a center of excellence for missiles, for the development of missiles. We have a huge research and development center there. So, if you go into each one of the posts where we build things, make things, or manage things, have the programs for them, we have a big research and development center. Now, outside of that, that’s sort of and acquisition function. As far as the think tank type piece goes, we have the missile analysis center out at White Sands. We have combat analysis agency here in Washington, D.C. We have a lot of deep attack analysis that goes on at West Point. We have a good analytical base at West Point. A lot of analysis, war fighting analysis, and future visionary thinking and all goes on at War College in Carlisle. So, there’s an awful10 lot of research going on. The skill is bringing all that together, which is more difficult. It’s easy to think of things, much harder to bring them together.
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS 词汇提示
1.joint operations 联合作战
2.free up 腾出
3.former operational arts 以往的战役概念
4.Centers of Gravity 作战重心
5.asymmetric  a. 不对称的
6.sustained  a.持久的
7.peacekeeping operations 维持和平行动
8.humanitarian  n.人道主义
9.post  n.基地
10.awful  a.大量的
QUESTIONS AFTER LISTENING 听后答题:
1. What has happened today on the battle field?
A.It is all the services on the battlefield get the same information about the same time.
B.It is all the services get the same order about the same time.
C.It is all the services attack the same target about the same time.
D.It is all the services communicate same massages about the same time.
2. When does Mr. Garner think the enemies would have as much information as the U.S. has?
A.10 or 15 years from now.
B.15 or 20 years from now.
C.5 or 10 years from now.
D.10 or 20 years from now.
3. What will be the skill about information in the future?
A.It is how to use the information.
B.It is how you can take his information away from him.
C.It is how to get the information.
D.It is how to analyze the information.
4. How long has logistics been a problem?
A.For two thousand years.
B.For four thousand years.
C.For five thousand years.
D.For six thousand years.
5. What is the only way to begin to try to overcome the logistics problem?
A.It is in the platforms.
B.It is in the personnel.
C.It is in the organization.
D.It is in the communication.
6. What’s the meaning of in time logistics?
A.It means that you need to move logistics more quickly.
B.It means that you don’t move a lot of logistics and only move what you’re going to need.
C.It means that you can move a lot of logistics more easily.
D.It means that you can move a lot of logistics more effectively.
7. What is the mission of the Army?
A.It is to safeguard the mainland.
B.It is to fight sustained land combat.
C.It is to guard against terrorists.
D.It is to suppress the rebellion.
8. What type of thing is at the lower spectrum of the spectrum of war?
A.Such as a hi- tech regional war.
B.Such as suppressing rebellions.
C.Such as border conflicts.
D.Such as peacekeeping operations, humanitarian operations.
9. What is Huntsville for?
A.A center for development of torpedo.
B.A center for development of ammunition.
C.A center for development of airplane.
D.A center for development of missiles.
10. What is there at West Point?
A.There is an analytical base.
B.There is a missile base.
C.There is a combat analysis agency.
D.There is a war fighting analysis.
KEYS TO THE QUESTIONS 参考答案：
1.a 2.b 3.b 4.c 5.a 6.b 7.b 8.d 9.d 10.a