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美国政要第13课

所属教程:美国政要

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Revolution in Military Affairs in the United States
--Interview with Former Secretary of National Defense, Dr. William Perry 访美国前国防部长威廉•佩里博士
MR. CHEN BOJIANG: I feel honored to have the opportunity to interview you today. In my research on military revolution, future warfare and national defense development, you are the interviewee1 whom I most desire to speak with. As far as I know, you have not only personally directed defense research and engineering which contributed significantly to the advanced military technologies being used currently, but also promoted the discussion of revolution in military affairs during your appointment2 as the Secretary of Defense3. I really appreciate this chance to gain your insight4 and views on these issues.
What is the reason for the encouragement of the discussion of RMA5 in the USA? You have directed defense research and engineering for a long time. How do you view the emphasis and essence6 of this revolution in military affairs?
DR. PERRY: The RMA in the United States is simply applying the same technologies and the same management procedure to the military—that we’re applying to the commercial area. There’s a technological revolution going on in the world and it provides not only a basis for making newer and better products, but it also provides a basis for managing more effectively and more efficiently. The RMA is to conceive7 of what products could be most effective for the military and also what processes and procedures improve military efficiency—so that it’s not fundamentally different from the application of technology in the field. Once the new product—military weapons—has been developed and as new management processes become available, it can have a profound impact on tactics8 and doctrine9, and organization10. Now this is true in the industry as well—but it is perhaps more obvious in the military because the military tends to formulate their doctrine in certain forms and so the army, for example—in FM-10011 something—describes the thinking about military doctrine. But some of these new products and processes change dramatically and therefore it is important to exploit12 tactics and doctrine at the same time. An excellent example of this is Desert Storm13, where for the first time, we used stealth14 technology and for the first time, we took modern intelligence15 techniques to the battlefield. Those techniques were so powerful that we had to devise16 new tactics on how to use them. It is great credit17, I think, to the American military leadership, that even though they did not have the new manuals18 at that time, that they were able to adapt the technology as the war was proceeding. The most striking19 was the way that used stealth. They chose to use the stealth airplane over the area with the greatest defense. The idea was that stealth would have a leveraging20 effect. If we could use it to essentially defeat the defense system, then you end up giving other aircraft a much easier time. So, the military leaders who were putting the military campaign21 together had to devise a way of using the aircraft they had, including non-stealth most effectively, and so that the other aircraft benefited from how we were using the stealth aircraft. That’s an example of how doctrine and tactics need to be adapted to reflect the availability of new weapons systems and new technology.
MR. CHEN: Compared to the RMAs that have occurred in history, what are the topmost characteristics of the RMAs which should be especially noticed?
DR. PERRY: In terms of other RMAs in history, the characteristic of this one, which is dramatically different from any other, is the speed with which it is proceeding, compared with the introduction of gunpowder22, introduction of the flint23 lock and other major changes that brought about change in tactics and doctrine. They changed the way we fought war—caused us to back away from trench24 warfare. All of those changes occurred over several decades, whereas the current technology is changing every few years now. And so, the military leaders, if they want to use the most effective technology have to be prepared to turn over weapons systems in a few years time and change their tactics and doctrine in a correspondingly short time. And that’s a very difficult task. One area of difficulty is that in the computer field, a new generation of computers is introduced every two years, whereas it takes us ten to twelve years to develop a new airplane. And when that airplane comes into the force, it’s there for twenty or thirty years. That means that you’d have to find a way of deciding which of the new technologies are most important and incorporating them into existing weapon systems without waiting for the next generation of weapon systems. And that challenges our system development because it was set up to operate in a different way—in a twelve year cycle. The topmost characteristic which affects the whole system the most, is the speed with which it advances.
MR. CHEN: To the best of your knowledge, what is the topmost achievement or theoretical breakthrough25 as a result of the discussion on RMA?
DR. PERRY: The topmost break-through is certainly stealth—it was a dramatic breakthrough. But in a different field altogether, and I would say equally important, has been the introduction of information technology, which basically answers the question that soldiers have asked for centuries, which is what is over the next hill. The way of answering that question has moved very slowly through the centuries. During the last decade, The technology has moved very fast and has completely revolutionized how that question is answered.
MR. CHEN: How is the American future development of national defense related with RMA? How do you think RMA influences that development of national defense? Is the United States at the beginning, middle, or end of an RMA? What are the main trends in the development of RMA?
DR. PERRY: Yes. If I focus on information technology, we’re certainly not at the beginning of it—we have been introducing it now ever since before Desert Storm. I would say we’re not at the end of it, by any means. We’re in intermediate26 phase. But information technology continues to develop at a very fast rate. It’s been under way for fifty years and it has a long way to go. We’re not near the end yet. Because we’re not near the end of the technological changes, particularly in the field of information technology.

Practice Listening to words词汇听力练习:
1.interviewee [] n. 被采访者
2.appointment [] n. 任命,指定
3.Secretary of Defense国防部长
4.insight [] n. 见识
5.RMA:Revolution in Military Affairs军事革命
6.essence []n.实质
7.conceive [] vi. 考虑
8.tactics []n.战术
9.doctrine []n.条令,思想
10.organization []n.编制
11.FM-100美国军作战条令的一种
12.exploit [] vt.开拓,发展
13.Desert Storm沙漠风暴(意指海湾战争)
14.stealth []n.隐形
15.intelligence []n.情报
16.devise [] vt.设计,想出(办法)
17.credit []n.声望,荣誉
18.manual []n.手册
19.striking [] adj.显著的,惊人的
20.leverage []n.杠杆
21.campaign []n.战役
22.gunpowder []n.火药
23.flint []n.燧石,打火石;~lock燧发枪
24.trench []n.堑壕;trench warfare 堑壕战
25.breakthrough []n.突破
26.intermediate [] adj.中间的

【参考译文】
美国的军事革命
陈伯江:今天我有机会对您访谈,感到非常荣幸。在我着手进行有关美国军事革命、未来战争和国防发展问题研究的时候,您是我最想访谈的对象。因为据我所知,你本人不仅亲自领导了对于当今美国军正在使用的先进军事技术有着重大贡献的防务研究和工程项目,而且在你担任美国国防部长期间,又对推动军事革命的讨论发挥了重要作用。非常感谢您所给予我的这个能听取您对上述问题意见的机会。
首先我想知道的是,推动着美国这场军事革命讨论的原因是什么?你曾经长期领导过防务研究和工程项目,你怎样看待这场军事革命的重点和实质?
佩里:美国的军事革命只不过是将商业领域所用的相同的技术和相同的管理方法运用于军事。当今世界正在进行着一场技术革命。这场棱柱革命不仅提供了一个制造更新更好产品的基础,而且提供了一个能越来越有效地进行管理的基础。军事革命就是要考虑哪些产品对于军队最为有效,哪些管理过程和方法能改进军队的效率,因此,能提高效率的管理过程和方法与技术在军事的运用并无要本上的不同。一旦新的产品(军事装备)被研制出来和新的管理方式出现,就会对技术、作战理论和编制产生重大影响。现在在工业上也是这们,但在军事上更为明显,因为军队趋向于一定的形式规范他们的作战理论。例如拿陆军来说,就是以类似FM—100这样的条令来说明有关的作战理论。然而某些新的技术和作战理论就很重要。这方面的一个很好的例子就是海湾战争。在这场战争中,我们首次使用了隐形技术,并首次将现代侦察技术用于战场。这些技术具有很强的能力,我们不得不研究如何运用这些核技术的战术。我认为,当时美国军事领导的莫大功绩在于,尽管他们并没有运用那些技术的新手册,然而他们却能在战争进程中那些技术。最了不起的是运用隐形飞机的方式。他们选择了将隐形飞机用于对方防御最严密的地区上空,因为隐形技术将全产生事半功倍的杠杆作用。如果我们能用它去极大地挫败对方的防御系统,那么其它飞机的作战运用就会容易得多。所以,统筹进行战役规划的军事领导人必须想出一种办法,能最有效地作用他们所拥有的飞机,包括非隐形飞机,从而使非隐形飞机能从隐形飞机的使用中得到好处。这就是一个关于需要采用新的战术和作战理论使之适应新武器系统和新技术要求的例子。
陈:与历史上发生过的军事革命相比,对于当前这场军事革命,特别值得注意的特点是什么?
佩里:从历史上发生的军事革命来看,例如与火药和燧发枪的发明以及其它引起战术和作战理论变化的主要变革相比,这次军事革命最不同于其他各次的特点,是其演进的速度。以往的发明也曾改变过我们进行战争的方式,使我们远离了堑壕战。但是以往的变化历时几十年,而当今的技术每几年就会发生变化。因此,军事领导人如果想使用最有效的技术,就不得不在几年的时间内放弃已有的武器,并在相应的短时间内更换其战术和作战理论。这是一项极其困难的任务。最困难的一个领域就是电子制一种新飞机需要10~12年时间,并且当新飞机进入部队,还要服役20或30年。这就意味着你得找到一种办法,来决定哪些技术是最重要的,并把它们引入到现有的武器系统中去,而无需等到下一代武器系统。这将对我们的武器系统发展工作带来挑战,因为它是以不同的方式(即以12年为周期)动作的。对整个系统有着最大影响的最重要特点,是技术进步的速度。
陈:在你看来,美国军事革命所带来的最生要的成果和理论上的突破是什么?
佩里:最重要的突破当然是隐形技术----它是一种巨大的突破。但是我要说在一个完全不同的领域,同样重要的是信息核技术的发明。信息核技术解决了士兵们几个世纪以来一直要求解决的问题,这就是“在下一卒山的后面有什么”?几个世纪以来,解决这一问题进展甚慢。最近10年,技术的进展非常之快。使解决这一问题有了革命性的办法。
陈:美国国防的未来发展无疑将与军事革命密切相关。你怎样看待军事革命对国防的影响?当前美国正处在这场军事革命的开始、中期还是后期?军事革命发展的主要真挚是什么?
佩里:如果侧重从信息技术来说,我们确实已经不在军事革命的开始阶段,因为我们甚至在海湾战争之前就已开始使用目前这些技术。但进化论从哪方面看,我们也不在后期阶段。我们正处在这场军事革命的中间阶段。然而,信息核技术仍在以一种很快的速度发展。跾技术的发展已有50年,并还将经历一个漫长的过程。迄今为止我们尚未接近军事革命发展的尽头,因为我们尚未接近技术变化的尽头,尤其是在信息技术领域。

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