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美国政要第16课

所属教程:美国政要

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What is Information warfare
--Interview with Mr. Chuck Hawkins, the Director of the Historical Evaluation & Research Organization (HERO)Library 访军事历史评估与研究中心主任查尔斯•霍金斯
MR. CHEN BOJIANG: What is Information Warfare (IW) 1? You said that information operations (IO) 2 are the most important part of RMA. Can you explain this more fully?
MR. HAWKINS: Information Warfare is a complex aspect of modern war, but it is not a new feature. It has been called by various names in the past-intelligence and electronic warfare, to name two and will likely be called by different names in the future. Right now, in Western militaries as well as Eastern ones, the term is in vogue3; it has become a commonplace.
I find definitions useful to begin, so I offer the following: “Information Warfare is a feature of military conflict where information systems are attacked or defended, directly or indirectly as a means to dominate, degrade or destroy, or protect or preserve4 date, knowledge, beliefs or combat power potential.”
It’s worth a moment to examine the definition more closely.
Information warfare is a feature of military conflict. Although it is certainly possible to have an information war all by itself, it really doesn’t make much sense to do so. It would be sort of like having an artillery war5 by itself. Historically, enemies have dueled with artillery across the battlefield in war, and even when war was not declared. Vietnam and China exchanged artillery fire across their border in the 1980s, after China's campaign into northern Vietnam. It may have been an “artillery war,” but it didn't amount to much more than harrasment6.
Information warfare is a feature of military conflict. There doesn't have to be an actual “war” for information operations to exist. A “state of conflict” broadens the scope of the definition to include IO in peacetime as well. Witness the exchange of propaganda7 and electronic “duels” that took place between East and West during the Cold War.
Information systems are more than just technology. They include “systems” of personal and social interaction, cultural exchanges, media reporting, laws, and shared principles. The U.S. Army routinely refers to the “eight battlefield systems” during operational exercises and tactical training of combat units.
Just as the role of infantry8 is to “close with and destroy the enemy,” the last half of the definition explains that IW is used to attack or defend, directly or indirectly, as a means to dominate, degrade or destroy, or protect or preserve data, knowledge, beliefs or combat power potential. The emphasis on the object of IW is distributed evenly among technological assets9 and human behavioral elements. It's ultimate objective is the combat power potential of an opposing force; IW can be used to blind air defense target acquisition systems, nullifying10 the combat power potential of those weapons. Likewise, IW can be applied to attack the command and control infrastructure of an artillery brigade11 and its communications links to maneuver units, thereby reducing or negating12 the combat power of artillery. Or, IW can be used to change beliefs and perceptions of an enemy. Witness the mass surrenders of Iraqi troops during the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War.
In sum, information warfare is a “combat multiplier13,” a kind of warfare that enhances or degrades combat power. Like infantry or armor, IW can be considered a military "arm in its own right, but, also like infantry and armor, IW is best used in combination with other branches of the military in order to achieve a common objective.
MR. CHEN: According to the above definition, how many forms of IW are there?
MR. HAWKINS: Martin Libicki, a senior fellow at the Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University, says that Information Warfare is not “a separate technique of waging war.” Rather, there are seven distinct forms of IW, each involving the protection, manipulation, degradation and denial of information. These forms are:
Command and control warfare, which is to separate the enemy's head from the body of his forces. Intelligence-based warfare, which consists of measures and countermeasures14 that seek knowledge to dominate opponents combat power in the battlespace, and combat power potential outside the battlespace.
Electronic warfare, such as radio-electronic or cryptographic15 means.
Psychological warfare16, used to influence the minds of friends, neutrals andfoes.
“Hacker” warfare17, in which computer systems are attacked.
Economic information warfare, blocking or channelling information to pursue economic dominance.
Cyberwarfare18, a futuristic collection of ideas that range from clever to absurd19.
These forms are weakly related, Libicki states, and the overall concept of IW is not very coherent. I think some of the IW forms Libicki lists are more closely related than others.
What is new about IW and IO is the technological means of transmitting, receiving, manipulating, disseminating and acting upon information. Since the time of the first battlefield use of electronic equipment, information operations have been of increasing importance in war. Today, the level of importance is so great that some analysts say that IO will be the dominant characteristic of future wars.
Nevertheless, the advent of high-speed, portable, low-cost, information technology is absolutely central to the ability to conduct information warfare and information operations today. Never before has there been such a vast and complex capability to process and communicate data and combine it into information. Truly, we are in the Age of Information, and the age is just beginning.
These revolutionary technological developments are what is new to information warfare and information operations. They do not outweigh or overshadow20 the importance of older types of IW or IO; they do enhance these earlier types, and make them more potent. Taken in combination, the old and new ways to conduct information warfare can be the dominant feature of future military conflict.

Practice Listening to words词汇听力练习:
1.IW: information warfare信息战
2.IO: information operation信息作战
3.vogue [] n. 时尚
4.preserve [] vt.保存
5.artillery war 火炮战
6.harassment [] n. 骚扰
7.propaganda [] n. 宣传
8.infantry [] n. 步兵
9.asset [] n. 资产
10.nullify [] vt. 使无效
11.brigade [] n.(军队的)旅
12.negate [] vt. 否定,取消
13.combat multiplier 战斗力倍增器
14.countermeasure [] n. 对策,反措施
15.cryptographic [] adj. 密码的
16.psychological warfare 心理战
17.hacker warfare黑客战
18.cyber warfare 计算机战
19.absurd [] adj. 荒谬的
20.overshadow [] vt. 使……失色

【参考译文】
什么是信息战
陈伯江:什么是信息战?你曾说到信息作战是军事革命最重要的组成部分,你能更全面地作些解释吗?
霍金斯:信息战是现代战争的一个复杂问题,但不是什么新东西。过去它曾有过不同的名字,如情报战与信息战;郊区来今后可能还会有不同的名字。眼下,在西方军队以及在东方军队,信息战这一术语都很时髦,它已成为一个通用术话。
我认为由定义开始是必要的,因此我对信息战提出如下定义:“信息战是军事估的一种特征,以对信息系统的直接或间接进攻或防御为手段,达成对数据、知识、信念或战斗潜力的控制、削弱、破坏、保护、或贮存。”
下面有必要花些时间对上述定义作些解释。
首先,要弄清楚定义中所说的“特征”的含义。虽然单独进行一场信息战是完全可能的,但那样做确实没有太大的意义。这有点像单独地进行—场火炮战。从历史上看,敌对双方会在战争中进行战场上的火炮战,并且在尚未宣战的时候就开始进行火炮战。80年代越南和中国在中越战争之后曾进行越过边界的炮火互射,这可能是一种“火炮战”,但也不过是—种骚扰战而已。
其次,要弄清定义中所说的“军事冲突”的含义。并不一定要有一场实实在在的“战争”,信息战才能存在。“冲突的状态”把定义的运用范围扩展为也包括和平时期的信息作战。冷战时期东西方之间相互:进行的宣传和电子“交锋”就属于这种情况。
第三,定义中“信息系统”的含义也不仅指技术,它们还包括人与社会相互关系、文化交流、媒介报导、法律,以及共有的准则等“系统”。这就是美国陆军在战斗部队进行作战演习和训练期间,通常提到的“八个战场系统”。
第四,正像步兵的任务是“接近并消灭敌人”一样,定义的后半部分说明信息战“以对信息系统的直接或间接进攻和防御为手段,达成对数据、知识、信念或战斗潜力的控制、削弱、破坏、保护或贮存。”信息战打击的重点目标,既有技术资产要素,又有人的行为要素,其最终目标是对方军队的战斗潜力。信息战可用于迷盲对方防空目标搜索系统,从而剥夺那些武器的战斗潜力。同样,信息战可用于攻击—个火炮旅的指挥控制基础设施及其与机动部队之间的通讯联系,从而降低或剥夺高炮的作战能力。或者,信息战还可用以改变敌人的信念和看法,波斯湾战争期间伊拉克军队的大规模投降就是例证。
总之,信息战是—种“战斗力倍增器”,一种加强或削弱战斗力的作战方式。像步兵或装甲兵一样,信息战有理由被认为是一个独立的“兵种”;但是,同样像步兵或装甲兵一样,为了达成共同目标,信息战最好能与其它的军事手段结合使用。
陈:按照上述定义,信息战的作战形式有哪些?其基本内容如何?
霍金斯:国防大学战略研究所高级研究员马丁•利比奇认为,信息战不是一种“单独地进行战争的技术”更确切地说,信息战有7种不同的形式,每一种都涉及到对信息的保护、控制、削弱和剥夺。利比奇所列的7种形式是:
指挥与控制战。这是一种使敌人的“大脑”与其军队的“身体”分离的作战形式。
情报战。包括力求通过情报信息的各种侦察与反侦察措施,以便控制敌方作战空间之内的战斗力和作战空间之外的战斗潜力。
电子战。诸如无线电电子战或各种密码手段。
心理战。用于影响友方、中立方和敌方的心理。
“黑客”战。用于攻击计算机系统。
经济信息战。通过封锁或传播信息实行经济上的控制。
计算机战。包括未来学家的各种猜想,其中有些是奇思妙想,有些是无稽之谈。
利比奇指出,上述形式相互之间没有多少关联,而且总的来看其概念也不很一致。我认为利比奇所列的信息战形式有一些相互关系更为密切一些。
信息战和信息作战的创新之处在于发射、接收、控制、传播和作用于信息的技术手段有了创新发展。自从在战场上首次使用电子装备以来,信息作战在战争中的重要性不断增加。今天,其重要程度如此之高,以致一些分析家们认为信息作战将是未来战争的主导性特点。
然而,信息技术在高速、轻便、低成本方面的发展,对于提高目前进行信息战和信息作战的能力非常重要。我们从来没有像今天这样拥有如此巨大而复杂的处理和传输数据并使之结合为信息的能力。我们确实跨进了信息时代,而这一时代才刚刚开始。
这些革命性技术的发展就是信息和信息作战的新意所在。它们并没有使信息战或信息作战的旧有方式的重要性降低;而是进一步加强了旧有方式,使之变得更有效力。将新旧方式结合起来进行信息战,可能是未来军事冲突的最主要特征。

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