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美国政要第21课

所属教程:美国政要

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The Future Development of the U.S. Army
--Interview With Lieutenant General(Re.)Jay M.Garner,the Assistant Vice Chief of Staff of the Army 访美国陆军前副参谋长助理杰伊•加纳中将(退役)
MR.CHEN BOJIANG:I feel greatly honored to have this opportunity to gain your insights on the future development of the US Army today. I really appreciate that you have given me this chance to interview you today given your full schedule.
The U.S. Army has increasingly emphasized the exploitation of the Revolution in Military Affairs(RMA)on such efforts as Force XXI1 and Army After Next2. What is your interpretation3 of RMA to day? Can you give me an overview of the progress that the Army has made in the RMA research?
MR.GARNER:I know you've talked to Dr. Marshall and others on RMA.I think RMA is at least thirty years from now. Probably twenty, twenty-five, twenty-three. I don't see the Army making a leap to that right away because, from a practical sense, it can't do that. To make the great changes it has to make, the technologies are not there right now. The other thing is, in order for the Army to go to Army After Next, it has to live with4 the current set of weapons for about thirty years. In other words,you can't build a new tank right now. If you built a new tank today, it would look kind of like a tank today looks like. This is because the technology, the composite5 technologies aren't there the lightweight materials aren't there the more fuel efficient engines aren't there, the greater ranges of guns aren't there yet, so it will take another twenty-five to thirty years to do that. In the meantime, what the Army has to do is quit buying the things it's buying. It has to quit buying Brad leys and tanks and Apaches and Black hawks6 and those things in order to free up the money to be able to do Army After Next. So, there's a period there that's going to be probably twenty years long, twenty or twenty-five years long, where we're going to live with the equipment that we have now. So,the challenge to the Army is to make that equipment as good as it can be, and during that long period of time, where we're trying to develop Army After Next, is to make sure that we don't lose over match with the current set of equipment we have. So, The revolution in military affairs, yes, that's coming. But, it's not going to be rapid. It's going to take a very long time to do that.
MR. CHEN: What is the focus of the U.S. Army's RMA efforts? What are the most important changes in the Army that will be brought about by the RMA?
MR. GARNER: Information, the use of information. Yes. Use the information as a weapon. What will happen is you'll see a cultural change in the Army. A change in the way the Army thinks. The way it thinks in the future will be how to respond to the information it has how to use information that is much faster and how to take large volumes of information and distill7 it down to just exactly what you need. In doing that,I think you'll see the synergy8 of fires and maneuvers come closer together than they have before. I also think you'll see the disparity9 between the Army and its enemies get wider, because I don't think enemies will be able to use information as fast. So, you'll always be ahead of your enemies, thought wise, because of the information you have. Now, the danger there is the enemy taking that information away from you--two edged sword10.
MR. CHEN: Like the German Army's innovation of Blitzkrieg11 with the tank, how does the U.S. Army envision12 the use of today's technology for RMA advances?
MR. GARNER: Today's technology? I don't think today's technology will do it. It will have to be tomorrow's technology.
Today's technologies aren't going to make you much better than you are right now. You just get improvements on the margin13. Today’s technologies allow us to do evolutionary changes. Army After Next is going to be a revolutionary change. And, the technologies for revolutionary change aren't ready yet.
Yeah,the technologies that allow you to make revolutionary change aren't mature14 enough yet. They're not ready. So, even if you had all the money in the world and all the time, you still couldn't do it because the technology isn't there. It's just too immature.
MR. CHEN: The U.S. Army has begun research on the Force XXI and the Army After Next for several years. What is the main purpose and highlights of this research? What is the progress on this re-search?
MR. GARNER: Well,Army XXI is a process by which the Army is looking at a lot of things and a lot of concepts. That process will end by the close of the first decade of the next century. That process will be over about 2010.During the process, the Army will have culturally changed. The next process will be what happens between 2010 and 2025 or 2030. That will be the RMA and that will be the physical change in the Army. You see, the first ten or fifteen years, you change the culture you change the way you think and the way you do things. You make a mental15 change. So, you know mentally how to fight your new ways, you have the concepts and the doctrine to do that. But, the machines that allow you to do that aren't quite good enough yet. So, the next fifteen or twenty years will be the physical change. So, Army XXI is really a mental process of new ways,new concepts, new thoughts, new ideas, the changing of the culture. Then Army After Next, that's a physical change. Where the tanks of 2025 probably doesn't look anything like the tank today. So, there's really two things going. First thing is the mental change, the next thing is the physical change. The reason you don't do the physical change earlier is because you don't have the technologies they aren't mature enough yet. Do you understand?
I think you need to go through Force XXI in order to get to Army After Next, because of the thought process. You continue the thought process, experimentation and the new concept, and, by the end of Force XXI, we will have the concepts that we're going to fight for the next twenty or thirty years. The next step then will be making the machines that will allow you to fight that way.

Practise Listening to words 词汇听力练习:
1.Force XXI “21世纪陆军”(美陆军的一个研究项目)
2.Army After Next “后天的陆军”(美陆军的一个研究项目)
3.interpretation [] n.解释,阐明
4.live with 与……一起
5.composite [] adj. 复合的
6.Bradley 布雷德利(战车)
Apache 阿帕奇(直升机)
Blackhawk 黑鹰(直升机)
7.distill []vt. 提取
8.synergy [] n. 协同(作用)
9.disparity [] n. 差别,不同
10.two edged sword 双刃剑
11.blitzkrieg [] n. 闪电战,奇袭战法
12.envision [] vt. 预想,构想
13.margin [] n. 页边的空白
14.mature [] vi. 成熟
15.mental [] adj. 精神的,智力的

【参考译文】
美国陆军的未来发展
陈伯江:今天有机会就美国陆军发展问题听取你的意见,我感到非常荣幸。你在百忙中接受我的采访,我确实非常感谢。
近年来,美国陆军一直在利用军事革命来加强对陆军发展的研究(如“21世纪陆军”和“后天的陆军”的研究)。你怎样看待军事革命?请你简要介绍一下陆军进行军事革命研究的情况。
加纳:我知道你已就军事革命问题采访了马歇尔博士和其他一些人。我认为从现在开始,军事革命至少还需要30年,也可能20、25或23年。我不认为陆军马上就会有那样的飞跃,因为从实际情况看不可能做到。就那些必须进行的重大变化来说,目前尚无相应的技术。另一个原因是,为使今天的陆军过渡到“后天的陆军”,大约在30年内,它必须继续使用当前的武器装备。换句话说,目前你还不能造出一种新的坦克。如果你现在造一辆新坦克,它看起来会与现有的坦克差不多,这是因为目前制造新型坦克所需的技术还没有出现,还没有复合技术;还没有轻型材料;还没有能更有效使用燃料的发动机;也还没有作用距离更远的枪炮;因此,还将需要25~30年时间来解决这些问题。与此同时,陆军必须停止继续采购那些东西。停止采购布雷德利战斗车、坦克、阿帕奇直升机、黑鹰直升机,以便能省出钱来去发展“后天的陆军”。因此,大概在20或25年长的一段时间里,我们将继续使用现有的武器装备。美国陆军的任务是使现有装备尽可能处于良好状态,并且在我们努力发展“后天的陆军”这段长时间里,确保不要丧失与我们目前所拥有的武器装备相匹配的作战能力。是的,军事革命正在到来。但它将不会很快完成,进行这场革命需要很长的时间。
陈:美国陆军军事革命努力的重点是什么?军事革命将会给陆军带来的最大变化是什么?
加纳:信息,以及对信息的运用。对,把信息当作一种武器。你会看到美国陆军将要出现一场文化上的变革,一场陆军思维方式的变革。今后陆军思维的方式将是如何对它所拥有的信息做出反应;如何非常快地利用信息;以及如何获得大量的信息并从中提取你所需要的内容。在这样做时,我认为你将会看到火力与机动之间的协同比过去更加密切。你还会看到美国陆军与敌人之间的力量对比会更加悬殊,因为我认为敌人不可能那样快地利用信息。所以,你将总是领先于你的敌人,因为你拥有信息。现在的危险在于,也会有敌人从你的手中夺走信息。信息是一把双刃剑。
陈:像德国陆军在二战时发明与坦克相关的闪击战那样,美国陆军在用今天的技术推动军事革命方面有何构想?
加纳:今天的技术?我认为今天的技术还做不到,它必须是明天的技术。
今天的技术将不会使你比现在好多少。你只能作点边边角角的改进。今天的技术只允许渐进性的变化,“后天的陆军”才会导致革命性的变革。目前尚不具备引起革命性变化的技术。
能使你进行革命性变化的技术目前还不成熟。因而,既使你拥有世界上的全部钱财和全部时间,你也无法进行革命性的变化,因为缺少技术。技术还太不成熟。
陈:美国陆军开始进行“21世纪陆军”和“后天的陆军”的研究已好几年了,这些研究的主要目的和重点是什么?取得了哪些进展?
加纳:“21世纪陆军”的研究是一个要进行大量理论和实际探索的过程。这一过程将在下个世纪前10年接近尾声的时候结束。在这一过程中,美国陆军将会出现文化上的变化。美国陆军发展的下一个阶段将会出现在2010年至2025年或2030年之间,那将是军事革命并且美国陆军将会发生物理上的变化。要知道,在前10年或15年时间里,你改变文化:即改变你的思维方式和行为方式。你进行心理上的变化,懂得如何以新的方式进行作战,制定以新方式作战的各种概念和理论。但允许你那样做的机器(装备)还不够好。而在它之后的下一个15或20年将是物理变化的时期。所以,“21世纪陆军”的研究确实是一个发现新方式、新概念、新思想、新观点的心理活动过程,旨在改变文化。“后天的陆军”是要进行物理上的变化。2025年时的坦克大概一点也不像今天的坦克。因此,实际上会有两个方面的变化,首先是心理上的变化,然后是物理上的变化。之所以不能更早地进行物理变化,是因为还不具备变化所需要的技术。这些技术目前尚不成熟。
我认为,为了进入“后天的陆军”,你必须先经过“21世纪陆军”,因为需要有一个思想变化的过程。经过这一实验和发展新概念的思想变化过程,到“21世纪陆军”的研究结束时,我们将获得此后20或30年作战所需的各种新概念,下一步则将是发展使你能以那种方式作战的武器装备。

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