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教你发美音Course #3LESSON 5 : INTONATION & SYLLABLE STRESS

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In Course #1 you learned to do the basic JUMP UP/STEP DOWN intonation pattern. Now let's explore a little refinement of that pattern. Instead of just jumping on an early, important word, let's jump on the stressed syllable of that word. As you listen to the tape the first sample you'll hear is the sentence, I'M REALLY GLAD TO SEE YOU. We'll start the intonation pattern on the word "really." Since it has first syllable stress, we'll jump on that first syllable.

I'M REALLY GLAD TO SEE YOU.

 

RE -
                           AL -
                    I'M         LY
                                        GLAD TO
                                                SEE
                                                        YOU
.

But the next sentence you hear substitutes the word PARTICULARLY for REALLY. Since that word stresses its second syllable, we'll now have to wait until that second syllable for the pitch jump.

I'M PARTICULARLY GLAD TO SEE YOU.

 

TIC -
                            U -
                                LAR -
                I'M PAR -               LY GLAD TO
                                                        SEE
                                                                YOU.




In the three sections which follow, you'll practice jumping the pitch on the stressed syllables of verbs, then adjectives, and finally nouns. Throughout the verb section, I will continue to diagram the jumps and steps as I did in the last two sentences. After that, I'll simply underline the stressed syllables as a signal for you to make the initial pitch jump.

L5/S1-A : STRESSED SYLLABLES OF VERBS {Counter # ...........}

Follow the instructions on the tape. Begin the intonation pattern by jumping on the stressed syllable (underlined) of the verb. Then immediately beginning the downward steps. We'll start with one-syllable verbs.

 

TRY
                              IT
                                TO -
                I'LL                MOR-
                                        ROW     
                                                MOR-
                                                      NING.

And now do similar sentence patterns, substituting these additional one syllable verbs in the same sentence.

 

FIND and GRAB

Try similar patterns substituting these other words which aren't recorded on the tape. hit, save, tow, kick, get, rock, skip

The next group of verbs have stress on their first syllables. Begin intonation by jumping on that syllables and then immediately (within the same word) begin the downward steps.

 

PUB-
                             LISH
                                  IT
                                        TO-
                I'LL                        MOR-
                                                ROW
                                                      MOR-
                                                           NING.

And now do similar sentence patterns, substituting these other verbs with first syllable stress in the same sentence.

 

CANCEL, TRANSLATE, CONCENTRATE, DEDICATE, SEPARATE, ANALYZE

 

I'LL DO IT TOMORROW MORNING.
I'LL TRY IT TOMORROW MORNING.
I'LL FIND IT TOMORROW MORNING.
I'LL GRAB IT TOMORROW MORNING.
I'LL PUBLISH IT TOMORROW MORNING.
I'LL CANCEL IT TOMORROW MORNING.
I'LL TRANSLATE IT TOMORROW MORNING.
I'LL CONCENTRATE ON IT TOMORROW MORNING.
I'LL DEDICATED IT TOMORROW MORNING.
I'LL SEPARATE IT TOMORROW MORNING.
I'LL ANALYZE IT TOMORROW MORNING.
I'LL INVESTIGATE IT TOMORROW MORNING.
I'LL ESTABLISH IT TOMORROW MORNING.
I'LL DETERMINE THAT TOMORROW MORNING.
I'LL REMEMBER IT TOMORROW MORNING.
I'LL CONTINUE IT TOMORROW MORNING.
I'LL RETURN IT TOMORROW MORNING.
I'LL INSURE IT TOMORROW MORNING.
I'LL CAMPAIGN FOR IT TOMORROW MORNING.
I'LL DESTROY IT TOMORROW MORNING.

Now try the same exercises with these other verbs that stress the first syllable.

 

rescue, rotate, finish, locate, borrow, listen to

The next group of verbs have stress on their second syllables. Begin intonation by jumping on that syllable. Then begin the downward steps immediately, within the same word.

 

VES-
                                     IT-
                                        GATE IT TO-
                        I'LL IN-                     MOR-
                                                          ROW
                                                                MOR-
                                                                      NING.

And now do similar sentence patterns, substituting these other verbs with second syllable stress in the same sentence.

 

ESTABLISH, DETERMINE, REMEMBER, CONTINUE

Now do more practicing using the following verbs with second syllable stress:

accomplish, examine, embellish, demolish, encourage

The next group of verbs have stress on their final syllables. Begin intonation by jumping on that syllable. Then immediately begin stepping down on the first syllable of the next word.

 

TURN
                                                IT
                                I'LL               TO-
                                                        MOR-
                                                              ROW
                                                                     MOR-
                                                                          NING.

And now do similar sentence patterns, substituting these other verbs with final syllable stress in the same sentence.

 

INSURE, RESOLVE, CAMPAIGN, DESTROY

And now try it with these other final syllable stress words which aren't recorded on the tape.

 

discard, collect, respect, devour, explore, ignore, require

Very often, words with four or more syllables will stress two of those syllables. In such cases, intonation can begin by jumping on either the primary or secondary stress point. Use both of the following patterns in stressing the verb in the following sentence.

 

FAC-
                                      TURE IT
                        I'LL MANU-              TO-
                                                    MOR-
                                                        ROW MOR-
                                                                    NING.
                        or
                        
                        
                                MAN-
                                      U-
                                        FAC-
                                              TURE IT
                        I'LL                           TO-
                                                        MOR-
                                                                ROW MOR-
                                                                            NING.

WE'RE HAVING AN INVESTIGATION.
WE'RE HAVING AN INVESTIGATION.

WE'RE HAVING AN MANUFACTURE IT TOMORROW.
WE'RE HAVING AN MANUFACTURE IT TOMORROW.

Remember, if you want you can start a second jump up pattern on the word "tomorrow." Of course, you'd jump on the second syllable of that word.

Now try similar sentence patterns substituting the following multi-syllabic verbs. Do each one twice, jumping pitch on the two different stressed syllables.

 

SUPERIMPOSE and REDEVELOP

And also on these words not recorded on the tape.

reassemble, reconsider, overindulge, reintroduce

L5/1-B: STRESSED SYLLABLES OF ADJECTIVES {Counter #.........}

We often begin intonation patterns by stressing adjectives. We're going to go through the same basic sequence we just used on verbs. We'll begin with the simplest pattern -- beginning pitch change on one syllable adjectives. Once again, be sure to begin the downward steps immediately after the pitch jump. Follow along with the spoken sentences on the tape.

A GREAT THING HAPPENED TODAY.
A SWELL THING HAPPENED TODAY.
A NICE THING HAPPENED TODAY.
SOME FINE THING HAPPENED TODAY.

Now continue practicing with these other one-syllable adjectives.

 

sweet, tame, foul, good, bad

Follow the tape once again as you begin intonation with adjectives that have first-syllable stress and pitch jumps.

A CHARMING THING HAPPENED TODAY.
A SILLY THING HAPPENED TODAY.
A INTERESTING THING HAPPENED TODAY.
A VALUABLE THING HAPPENED TODAY.
A WONDERFUL THING HAPPENED TODAY.

And also substitute there additional words that aren't recorded on the tape.

 

sorry, horrible, special, stimulating, challenging

In the next group we'll jump the pitch on adjectives that stress their second syllables. Again, don't forget to start down in pitch immediately after the jump -- on the very next syllable of the word.

A ANNOYING THING HAPPENED TODAY.
A EXPENSIVE THING HAPPENED TODAY.
A EMBARRASSING THING HAPPENED TODAY.
A INSPIRING THING HAPPENED TODAY.
A REMARKABLE THING HAPPENED TODAY.

Now try the same pattern on these other words with second-syllable stress.

enormous, suspicious, expected, implicit, important

The adjectives in the next group of sentences stress their final syllables. Here again we have to delay the actual pitch jump until that stressed syllable. Begin stepping down immediately on the first syllable of the next word.

A SECURE THING HAPPENED TODAY.
A DISTINCT THING HAPPENED TODAY.
AN ABSURD THING HAPPENED TODAY.

Now try the same pattern using these other words that have final-syllable stress.

abrupt, distressed, forlorn, despised, required

Let's investigate a group of longer adjectives which have optional syllables for intonation jumps. Try each sentence twice, so you can use both possible jumping points for each target word.

AN INCONSIDERATE PERSON CAME IN TODAY.
Or: AN INCONSIDERATE PERSON CAME IN TODAY.
A SUPERSTITIOUS PERSON CAME IN TODAY.
Or: A SUPERSTITIOUS PERSON CAME IN TODAY.
A INAPPROPRIATE THING HAPPENED TODAY.
Or: A INAPPROPRIATE THING HAPPENED TODAY.

Now practice on these additional words with optional syllable stress.

satisfactory, dis/interested, overindulgent, inexperienced

L5/S1-C : THE STRESSED SYLLABLES OF NOUNS {Counter #...............}

The vast majority of nouns have first syllable stress. Almost all of the ones which do not stress the first syllable are nouns whose root words are other parts of speech (usually verbs). Let's repeat the pattern we followed in the last two sections. Listen to the tape, and use basic JUMP UP/ STEP DOWN intonation. This time, however, we'll begin intonation patterns by emphasizing the nouns. Again, jump on the stressed syllables, and begin stepping down immediately after the jumps -- even if the downward steps must begin within the same word.

Start with nouns which have one syllable or first syllable stress.

MY DESK WAS THE TOPIC OF DISCUSSION.
THE CEILING WAS THE TOPIC OF DISCUSSION.
THE CARPET WAS THE TOPIC OF DISCUSSION.
OUR TELEPHONE WAS THE TOPIC OF DISCUSSION.
THE HIGHWAY SYSTEM WAS THE TOPIC OF CONVERSATION.

Now try substituting these other nouns with first syllable stress into this or other similar sentences.

table, workshop, calendar, strawberries, government, picture

Now here's a special category -- compound nouns. Here you jump the stressed syllable of the first word and continue stepping down through the second word of the compound noun.


THE AREA RUG WAS SPREAD ACROSS THE FLOOR.
THE ADDING MACHINE WAS THE TOPIC OF DISCUSSION.
THE SUPPLY CABINET WAS OVER BY THE WALL.
THE STATION WAGON CAN BE A FINE CAR.

And try with some other compound nouns.

real estate, heart specialist, toy soldiers, speech teacher, speech writer, grave digger, appointment secretary

Now jump pitch on nouns with second syllable stress.

THE DIRECTOR CAME INTO THE ROOM.
THE COMPUTER BROKE DOWN.
THE ASSEMBLY WAS CALLED TO ORDER.
OUR INVESTMENT WAS REALLY PAID OFF.

And try these additional words to begin intonation jumps in your own sentences.

producer, executive, assistant, interpreter, ambassador

L5/S1-D : FINAL WORD STRESS {Counter #.........}

Occasionally a speaker wants to stress the last word in a phrase or sentence. In such cases that word becomes a JUMP UP/STEP DOWN pattern all by itself. If the word stresses any syllable other than the last, you still jump up and then step down on the following syllable(s).

IT WAS REALLY INTERESTING.
IT'S VERY IMPORTANT.
HE FORGOT TO DO THE CLEANING.

But, if that final, important word has only one syllable or if the stress falls on the last syllable, then you must JUMP UP and SLIDE DOWN on the same stressed syllable.

DON'T TELL ME HE FORGOT.
I THOUGT I TOLD YOU TO STOP
THERE WAS NO WAY I CAN HELP
I DON'T WANT TO HAVE A DEBATE

GO
                                           O
                DON'T TELL ME HE FOR-        O
                                               T.



                                                STO
                                                      O
                I THOUGHT I TOLD YOU TO-                  O
                                                             P.

Follow the tape, and try the same jump up/slide down technique to emphasize the final words in these sentences.


THERE WAS NO WAY I CAN HELP
I DON'T WANT TO HAVE A DEBATE
HE DIDN'T HEAR WHAT I SAID.
WE'RE TRYING TO CONQUER A DISEASE.

Now make up your own sentences ending in the these words -- all of which have one syllable or final syllable stress. Use the same jump up/slide down pattern to stress them.

expect, belong, find, agree, receive, annoyed, explore, try

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