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教你发美音Course #3LESSON 6 : PRACTICING SYLLABLE STRESS

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Although there are no absolute rules in English telling you which syllable to stress, there are some groups of words which have similar stress patterns.

SECTION I: NOUNS {Counter #..........}

The vast majority of nouns stress their first syllable. In fact, most of the exceptions to this rule are nouns which have been formed from verbs. So, let's call these categories (1) Regular Nouns and (2) Verb-Based Nouns.

L6/S1-A : REGULAR NOUNS

Follow the instructions on the tape carefully, First you will practice speaking several nouns which have first syllable stress. After that you'll use the word ACTION in several different sentences. In the first you'll begin intonation by jumping in pitch on that word. In the second sentence you will still have to stress the correct syllable, but the word will not be jumping in pitch. In the third sentence, you'll end the intonation pattern by dropping in pitch on the stressed syllable of the word ACTION.

TABLE, HANDLE, ACTION, BACHELOR, DRAGON, CEILING, CARPET

- THE ACTION BEGAN IN THE SECOND SCENE.
- THERE WASN'T ENOUGH ACTION IN THE SCENE.
- THERE WASN'T ENOUGH ACTION.

Now try first syllable stress on the following regular nouns. Use each of them in three different sentences, just as you did a minute ago with the word ACTION.

warehouse, storage, calendar, ocean, animal, picture, fixture, conscience, basket, paper, shoulder, echo, concept, section

L6/S1-B : VERB-BASED NOUNS

Again follow the instructions on the tape. First you will practice speaking several nouns, most of which have second-syllable stress. After that you'll use the word ANNOUNCEMENT in the same three ways you used ACTION in the last exercise.

RECORDER, ANNOUNCEMENT, COMPUTER, GRADUATION, BROADCASTING, CALCULATOR

- THE ANNOUNCEMENT CAME EARLY IN THE MORNING.
- HE MADE TWO ANNOUNCEMENTS YESTERDAY.
- THE HEAD MASTER MADE THE ANNOUNCEMENT.

now try first-syllable stress on the following verb-based nouns. These words will have second-syllable stress unless otherwise indicated. Use each of them in three different sentences, just as you did a minute ago with the word ANNOUNCEMENT. The first time, begin the intonation pattern with the words. The second time, stress the syllable without jumping in pitch. The third time, do the final pitch drop on its stressed syllable.

election, creation, establishment, variation, construction

L6/S1-C : "ATE" VERBS/"-ATION" NOUNS {Counter #...........}

Follow the tape closely to hear the stress patterns for verbs which end in the letters "ate" and the related nouns which end in the letters "ation." In most cases the stress point for the verbs is two syllables before the last. The stress point for the nouns is usually on the second to the last syllable. However, if one of these nouns has four or more syllables, you will usually have the option of stressing the fourth syllable from the end.

INVESTIGATE / INVESTIGATION / INVESTIGATION
CONFISCATE / CONFISCATION / CONFISCATION
GENERATE / GENERATION / GENERATION
ACCELERATE / ACCELERATION / ACCELERATION
TERMINATE / TERMINATION / TERMINATION
SPECULATE / SPECULATION / SPECULATION

There are a few cases where the verb form has only two syllables and the noun form has only three. In those cases the words will stress their first and second syllables respectively.

FRUSTRATE / FRUSTRATION FIXATE / FIXATION

Now practice on these additional pairs which are not recorded on the tape.

 

accelerate / acceleration graduate / graduation
communicate / communication separate / separation
moderate / moderation contemplate / contemplation

L6/S1-D:THE "ATE" VERB SWITCH

Something else very interesting can happen to verbs that end in the letters "ate." By softening the Hard-A vowel and pronouncing it as a soft-I, the word changes from a verb into a noun or an adjective.

MODERATE, APPROXIMATE, SEPARATE, GRADUATE

And here are some additional examples of this switch which aren't recorded on tape.

elaborate, degenerate, associate, moderate

L6/S1-E:"-AVLE" and "-AVILITY" PAIRS

There are pairs of adjectives and nouns in which the adjective ends in the sound of the "L" and the noun ends in the letters "ILITY." In these pairs the adjective often stresses the first syllable while the noun stresses the third syllable from the end.

ABLE / ABILITY, STABLE / STABILITY, VIRILE / VIRILITY, STERILE / STERILITY

When the work s get a little longer, some of the noun forms have four or more syllables. In these cases the nouns have optional syllable stress.

CREDIBLE / CREDIBILITY / CREDIBILITY
AFFABLE / AFFABILITY / AFFABILITY
KNOWLEDGEABLE / KNOWLEDGEABILITY / KNOWLEDGEABILITY

And practice on a few more of these pairs:

 

pliable / pliability workable / workability
operable / operability salvageable / salvageability
capable/ capability sufferable/ sufferability

SECTION II: FINAL R-SHADED VOWELS {Counter #_____}

L6/S2_A

When a verb adds the simple "ER" sound to form a verb-based noun, the new noun will not stress the final syllable. It keeps the stressed syllable from the original verb. This also happens on some words which actually add the letters "OR" to represent the unstressed "ER" sound.

RUNNER, PLAYER, HELPER, SAILOR, TAYLOR, ACTOR, SAVIOR, INCINERATOR, EDUCATOR, COMMANDER

And a few more:

builder,reactor,dancer, dresser, teacher, soldier, carrier

The same stress rule applies when "ER" or "EST" are added to the end of and adjective. The final syllable will not be stressed in either of these cases. The stress will stay on the same syllable which was stressed in the original adjective. For example :

BIG/BIGGER/BIGGEST, HEAVY/HEAVIER/HEAVIEST, FAST/FASTER/FASTEST

Try a few more.

 

rich / richer / richest green / greener / greenest
heavy / heavier / heaviest fresh / fresher / freshest

L6/S2-B: FINAL "AR" and "OR" SYLLABLES

Words in which the last syllable contains the "AR" or the "OR" combinations usually do stress the final syllable.

IGNORE, EXPLORE, RAPPORT, SUPPORT, ABSORB
APART, DISCARD, ALARM, ENLARGE

And a few more not recorded on the tape:

implore, afford, record, discharge, disarm, embark

Of course, there are times when some of these "AR" or "OR" verbs with final-syllable stress can become nouns by shifting stress back to the first syllable. For example:

CONSORT/CONSORT, RESORT/RETORT, IMPORT/IMPORT, RETARD/RETARD, DISCARD/DISCARD

L6/S2-C: R-SHADED DIPHTHING ENDINGS

Words ending in R-shaded diphthongs will stress the first stage of the vowel stem. If you beginning intonation by jumping up on one of these words, you must jump on the first part of the vowel stem, than begin your downward step with the R-shading itself. Listen closely to the examples on the tape.

SINCERE, CAREER, INSURE, ENDURE, AIR, PREPARE, REPAIR,
DESIRE, REQUIRE, CONSPIRE, DEVOUR, OBSERVE, DISTURB

    - I'M NOT PREPAIRED YET.

    - WE'RE REQUIRED A DOWN PAYMENT.

    - I'M DISTURBED BY HIS ACTION.

Now try these additional words in sentences, jumping on the vowel stem of the R-Shaded diphthong.

appear, steer, impair, blare, affair, allure, secure, conspire, admire, shower

L6/S3: ASSORTED OTHER CATEGORIES

Listen closely to the tape for the stress patterns on words ending in "OLVE," ECT," and "IFY."

DESOLVE, RESOLVE, INVOLVE
EXPECT, RESPECT, INSPECT, COLLECT, connect, infect, select

I EXPECT IT.
I RESPECT THAT MAN.
MODIFY, AMPLIFY, CODIFY, SOLIDIFY, EXEMPLIFY, justify, horrify, sanctify

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