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雅思写作审题中遭遇头疼的句子怎么办?

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zhangcuihong

2017年11月03日

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在雅思写作审题过程中,除了会遇到生词、难词,还会碰到句子本身很长,又包含了很多复杂语法结构的情况。为了更好地帮助考生快速清晰地审题,小站老师这里重点通过具体的写作考题为考生讲解条件从句,代词指代,比较事物这三个语法知识点,并分析不同的文章题目应如何来应对:
【小站名师】雅思写作审题中遭遇头疼的句子怎么办?图1

首先我们来看一道包含条件从句的雅思写作考题:

If a five-year old commits a crime, should his/her parents take the responsibility and how should the parents be punished?

我们从语法角度来看,这句句子中的条件状语从句是If a five-year old commits a crime,主句是should his/her parents take the responsibility and how should the parents be punished。在if引导的条件从句中,主语是a five-year old,谓语是commits,宾语是a crime。至于主句,则是由and连接的并列句。

再细化下去,在and之前的一般疑问句中,主语是his/her parents,谓语是take,宾语是the responsibility,而在and之后的特殊疑问句中,主语是the parents,谓语是be punished。分析完语法结构,考生就可以更加清晰理解题目的意思:如果一个五岁的小孩触犯了法律,父母是否应该承担责任?父母应该受到何种惩罚?

在充分理解考题的基础上,我们可以在开头段更好地改写题目:I almost didn't believe it when I was told that one wouldn't be prosecuted if he or she broke the law thanks to the young age. It is a universal practice that the parents are severely punished for their underage children committing crimes.

按照这样的思路,全文可以写成四段论:第一段开门见山地给出观点,即父母应该为孩子的行为负责;第二段列举了父母应该负责的各种理由,回答了第一个问题;第三段指出父母应该接受的惩罚,回答第二个问题;第四段总结全文,简要概括理由和惩罚程度。

然后,让我们来看另一道包含代词指代的雅思写作例题:

Many people think it is wrong to lock animals up in zoos because it is cruel and serves little purpose. Others think that the animals in zoos can bring happiness. What is your opinion?

我们从语法角度来看,在第一句句子中,主句是many people think…,宾语从句是it is wrong to lock animals up in zoos because the practice is cruel。在这句宾语从句中,主句是it is wrong to lock animals up in zoos,从句是because it is cruel and serves little purpose。

更加细化来看,在宾语从句的主句中,形式主语是it,真正主语是to lock animals up in zoos。而在宾语从句的从句中,主语是the practice,谓语是is,表语是cruel。

分析完第一句以后,我们再来看第二句句子,主句是others think…,宾语从句是the animals in zoos can bring happiness to people。在它的宾语从句中,主语是the animals in zoos, 谓语是can bring,宾语是happiness。分析完语法结构后,考生可以更加清晰题目的意义,有人认为把动物关在动物园里太过残忍,有人认为动物园可以带来快乐。请给出你的看法。

在充分理解考题的基础上,我们可以在开头段更好地改写这道题目:It is now hard to find a city without a zoo which is the place for you to have fun with your children on weekends. The animals seem to be a magnet to people of all ages, but I regard zoos as a form of imprisonment for our fellow creatures.

依照这样的思路,文章可以写成五段:第一段引入话题并给出观点,即把动物 关在动物园里的确太过残忍;第二、三、四段指出把动物关在动物园里的确太过残忍的原因;第五段重申观点,总结分论点。

最后,让我们来看一道包含比较事物的雅思写作例题:

Participating in a sport is as important for psychological health and social development as it is for physical conditions. What is your opinion?

我们从语法角度来看,题目的主句是participating in a sport is…,题目中的比较状语从句是as it is for physical conditions。在它的主句中,主语是participating in a sport,谓语是is,表语是as important for psychological health and social development。而在这句长难句中的比较状语从句里,主语是it,谓语是is,表语是(important) for physical conditions。分析完语法结构就可以更加清晰题目的意思:参加体育运动可以保持身体健康,体育运动在保持心理健康和社会发展方面发挥了同样重要的作用。你是否同意这样的看法?

在充分理解考题的基础上,我们可以在开头段更好地改写题目:A stroll around any park will bring you face to face with people doing exercises in early mornings. The young as well as the old are becoming more health-conscious and are spending more time in gyms after work, for doing sports is certainly beneficial in many ways.

依照该思路,文章可以写成五段:第一段引入话题并且给出观点,即体育锻炼益处颇多;第二、三、四段指出体育运动的各种好处;第五段重申作者的观点。

对于本身语法就很薄弱的考生而言,如果上面的讲解还是有些生涩,那么下面我们就为大家补充一些关于条件从句,人称指代,比较事物这三个语法点的必备知识:

条件从句细分有零条件句、第一条件句、第二条件句、第三条件句。

l 零条件句可以表示某事是普遍的真理或事实:If you own a car, you also have to pay for insurance and registration every year. 也可以表示所谈事情不再属实,就用过去时:When I was a child, if I helped my mother, she gave me extra pocket money.

l 第一条件句可以表示某事在将来会有一种可能的结果:If you leave your money in the bank, you won’t earn any interest and it may lose value over time. 如果这种可能性不大,可以用might/could/may来替代will:If I invest it, I might/could/may lose it all. 但如果这种可能性会随着时间变化,可以用can来替代will:If you travel at rush hour, the trains can be very crowded.

l 第二条件句可以表示现在或未来时间中想象的或者不太可能的情况:If I went travelling, I wouldn’t have any money left over.

l 第三条件句可以表示过去时间中想象的但是没有发生的情况:If I’d bought a second-hand car, I wouldn’t have taken out this big bank loan. 如果过去时间中想象时已经知道可能性很小,可以用might/could来替代would:If I’d saved more money, I might have gone on that college trip last week. 最后除了if以外,还有其他引出条件的其他词语。用when/as soon as/as long as,要比if的可能性大:I will give you a lift into town when/as soon as/as long as I finish my work in time. 用provided/providing that,要比if更加口语化:You won’t lose any money provided that you think of it as a long-term investment. 而用In case,可以表示预防:You should keep this reference number in case there are any problems.

代词指代部分考生需要了解一些基本知识还有一些特殊情况。

l 主语代词用在动词前面:I you he she it we they;宾语代词用在动词或介词后面:me you him her it us them;物主代词用在指代物主限定词和名词:mine yours his hers ours theirs;反身代词用在主语和宾语一致或者强调主语和宾语:myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves。

l 了解完基本知识以后,考生还需要知道一些特殊情况。

首先,It可以作没有实质意义的主语用在句首,这些句子通常关于天气时间和距离:It’s raining/five o’clock/10 km from the sea. It也可以作形式主语用在句首,指代动词不定式和ing形式:It won’t take long to settle in. 其次,you and we可以指代广义上的每个人:In China you/we often eat sandwiches for lunch. 此外,they可以指代专家或权威机构:They have changed the law recently. 最后,one/ones可以避免可数名词重复使用:I do have rules. The most important one is that I want to everyone to feel at home.

考生就比较事物这个语法知识点需要了解一些常见的比较方式。

l 首先题目可以用as+形容词/副词+as表示相同或相似:Older athletes are as likely to achieve their peak fitness as younger athletes. 其次题目还可以用not as many/much +名词表示差异:There aren’t as many people doing sports at school (as there used to be). 最后题目可以用倍数和副词来特定化信息:China won nearly twice/three times as many silver medals as the US.

总而言之,考生在考场遇到这些令人头疼的复杂句时,要沉着冷静、认真仔细地分析句子的语法结构,抓住句子主干和关键信息,从而更好地理解题目意义并有效改写开头段,随后组织出全篇的思路。这些能力都需要考生注重平时积累,细致梳理每一个语法知识点,才能在考场上所向披靡无往而不胜。


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