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雅思议论文写作题系列文章之二:论证结构难

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2017年11月05日

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  论证结构难

  反观雅思考试的议论文题目,我们会发现其问题模式无非可以总结为两类:讨论类和分析解决型.但是仔细分析的考生会发现还有一类问题模式并不完全属于其中的某一类.请看下面的几个题目:

  1. As most people spend a major part of their adult life at work, job satisfaction is an important element of individual well-being. What are the factors that contribute to job satisfaction? How realistic is the expectation of job satisfaction for all workers?

  2. The unlimited use of cars may cause many problems. What are those problems? In order to reduce the problems, should we discourage people from using cars?

  3. In many places shopping is becoming a free-time activity, replacing the traditional hobbies of the past. Discuss the reasons for this development. Is this development positive or negative?

  4. In the past, people used to travel to see the difference from their home country. However, the sceneries in places around the world seem similar nowadays. What are the causes of these similarities? Do you think that the advantages of this similarity outweigh the disadvantages?

  上述三个题目都有两问.第一问是要求讨论分析原因和问题, 如factors, problems, reasons.如若是分析解决型,那么很显然第二问就是要求提出解决方法等.可是这三个题目并非如此发展,而是问考生是否同意某个观点或者认为此现象是积极或消极的影响,属于常见的讨论类问题模式.所以我们发现上述三个题目是所谓的分析解决型和讨论类的综合题型.那么这类题目所对应的文章结构和单一的讨论和分析解决都不一样.我们遵守一个原则,问什么答什么.正文一段写原因或问题,一段直接发表自己的观点,然后提出一些理由来支持.可参考下面的结构:

  Introduction Background + Topic (Problems)

  Body Causes / Problems

  Topic Sentence

  cause one / problem one + supporting sentences

  cause two / problem two + supporting sentences

  l cause three / problem three + supporting sentences

  Discussion

  My Opinion (Topic Sentence)

  reason one + supporting sentences

  reason two + supporting sentences

  reason three + supporting sentences

  Conclusion Restate my opinion

  所以上面的第一题参考这个结构就可以得出这样的提纲:

  Introduction People spend most of their adult life in their jobs, so job satisfaction is the most essential element for people to be well-being.

  Body Several factors are thought to be critical to lead to job satisfaction

  well paid

  the opportunities to get promoted

  suited to the job

  However, it is different to ensure everyone to be satisfied with their jobs.

  Different people have different definitions about job satisfaction

  The employers are in the wild chase of higher and quicker profits.

  Conclusion The employees have to stay positive and find a right job.

  因此其他的三个题目也可以依照这个结构得出相应的提纲.此类题目的难度在于考生见到此类陌生的问题模式,会觉得考前准备的结构,如模板等无处可用.专家建议考生要做好各手准备,虽然此类题目出现机率很低,但还是在考前也列一个此类模板,以便随机应变.


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