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雅思写作经典900句:动词间的逻辑关系

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zhaocongcong

2018年07月05日

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  1个main verb原则

  理论上讲:一个句子只应该有一个为主的动词(即2)。

  但是,实际运用的过程中,我们会发现一个句子中有多个动词,此时就需要:

  标记清楚这些动词彼此间的逻辑关系!

  这里的逻辑关系有两种情况:

  1.并列(即:将这些动词视为地位相同;一般方式为使用and连接)

  2.从属(即:牺牲某个或某些动词,将其处理成符合从属关系的方式,从而确保为主的动词只有一个;一般方式为使用动词三大非谓语形式:动词的ing形式、动词的过去分词形式、动词的不定式形式) 并列关系示例

  示例1:I sat down beside her said nothing.

  分析:sat与said之间没有标记逻辑关系,错误!可以添加and,形成并列关系,即:

  I sat down beside her and said nothing.

  示例2:I entered the room saw mother sit there wait for me come back.

  分析:这里有5个动词,都没有标记逻辑关系,错误!通过分析,我们看到:entered和saw可以并列,因为它们拥有共同的1,即:I;sit和wait可以并列,因为它们拥有共同的1,即:mother,但这两组动词之间就不能再并列了,因为无法这么做。这就意味着:这句话里的动词有的可以并列,而有的不可以。

  示例3:I opened the bag took out some paper and a pen, sat down started take notes.

  分析:opened,took out,sat down,started这四个动词拥有共同的1,即:I,而且都是这个1直接行使或发出的动作,所以,可以采取并列关系;但take因为有个过渡层,而且在时态上也与其它动词处于不平衡状态,因此并列处理不合适。 从属关系示例

  示例1:I sat down beside her said nothing.

  分析:动词关系混乱,假如想确保sat,则需要牺牲后面的said,即:

  I sat down beside her, saying nothing.

  假如确保后面的said,则需牺牲前面的sat:

  Sitting down beside her, I said nothing.

  示例2:To quit smoking, I eat candies.

  不定式常常用来表示目的。

  Part IV:一个句子一个句号的原则

  理论上讲,一个句子一个句号,但是,实际运用中会有几个甚至多个句子摆放在一起共享一个句号,此时应该怎么办呢?

  答案很简单:标记清楚这些句子间的逻辑关系。有两种: 并列关系示例

  示例1:I sat down beside her. I said nothing.

  变为:I sat down beside her and I said nothing.

  示例2:He asked me a question. I answered him.

  变为:He asked me a question and I answered him. 从属关系

  1)运用各类从句,形成主从符合句,主要包括:

  状语从句

  宾语从句

  定语从句

  主语从句

  同位语从句

  2)运用非谓语动词进行从属方式的处理。此时,部分句子的主要动词变成了动词的非谓语形式,致使整体的复杂句式变成了简单句式,主要手段就是按照规则进行了下列三种形态的变化:

  动词的ing形式

  动词的过去分词形式

  动词不定式形式

  从属关系示例(以状语从句为例)

  示例1:When he asked me a question, I answered him.

  示例2:I was so angry that I beat him up!

  示例3:If you ask me ‘why’, I will answer ‘because’!

  示例4:Since you are not feeling well, just lie down and take a good rest.

  示例5:Although I have tried my best, I can’t win her heart.

  示例6:Wherever I am, I will be thinking of you.

  示例7:I went out very early in the morning so that I could avoid the rush hour traffic.

  非谓语动词方式处理示例

  示例1:I sat beside her. I felt very nervous.

  可变为:Sitting beside her, I felt very nervous.

  或者:I sat beside her, feeling very nervous.

  示例2:I want to quit smoking. I eat candies.

  可变为:To quit smoking, I eat candies.

  示例3:A young man was tired of sleeping on the floor. He saved up for years to buy a real bed.

  可以变为:Tired of sleeping on the floor, a young man saved up for years to buy a real bed.

  示例4:Jimmy was dressed up as Father Christmas. He was accompanied by a guard of honor of six pretty girls. He set off down the main street of the city. He rode a baby elephant. The elephant was called Jumbo.

  可以变为:Dressed up as Father Christmas and accompanied by a guard of honor of six pretty girls, Jimmy set off down the main street of the city, riding a baby elephant called Jumbo.

  定语从句方式处理

  定语从句当然是属于“从属”的行列,所以,是处理为从属方式的手段之一,而且用途极大。请看下面的例子:

  This is the only book.

  I read the book during the holiday.

  两句的重合点在the book上面;将第二句中的the book抽出来,放到第一句book后面,其它内容向后甩。这样,我们就会看到the only book后面马上又在重复the book。为了避免重复,我们去掉the book,而换用另外一个词去替换,这个词就是定语从句中指物的which或that。因为这里的book有only在修饰,所以,最终我们选用that;又因为that在定语从句中作宾语,所以,可以省略。这样,两句就合并为:

  This is the only book (that) I read during the holiday.

  下面两句的合并遵循同样的原则:

  She is the girl.

  The girl’s father is my boss.

  èShe is the girl the girl’s father is my bossè She is the girl who (’s) father is my boss.

  èShe is the girl whose father is my boss.

  我们预热几个组成复杂句的句型:

  …, but… 结构(前后两个句子体现的是“转折”关系)

  …, for…结构(前后两个句子体现的是“果因”关系)

  …, so…结构(前后两个句子体现的是“因果”关系)

  …(,/;/.)however,…结构(前后两个句子体现的是更强烈的转折关系)

  …(,/;/.) therefore,…结构(前后两个句子体现了更强烈的因果关系)

  …(,/;/.)meanwhile,…结构(前后两个句子体现了时间上的同步关系)

  备注:一般情况下,however,therefore,meanwhile,还有其它类似功能级别的词在标点符号方面有这样的要求:(1)前面是句号,这些词第一个字母需要大写,然后跟逗号;(2)前面是分号;(3)前面句子用句号结束,然后将这些词嵌入后面句子的1和2之间,前后皆为逗号。

  示例1:She is rich and beautiful. However, I don’t like her.

  示例2:She is rich and beautiful; however, I don’t like her.

  示例3:She is rich and beautiful. I, however, don’t like her.

  这些基本知识构成了:1)句子结构的顺畅搭建;2)或由简单句合并为复杂句;2)或由复杂句拆分为简单句,或进行意思组合、或将句式复杂化、或将句式简单化的基石,也是本书要贯彻始终的根本理念。


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