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演讲集萃美国总统奥巴马在上海与中国青年对话(MP3+文本)

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Remarks by US President Barack Obama at Town Hall Meeting with Future Chinese Leaders
Museum of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China
November 16, 2009

美国总统奥巴马在上海与中国青年对话实录
中国上海 科技馆
2009年11月16日

[杨玉良]让我们大家用热烈的掌声欢迎美国总统奥巴马先生。各位来宾、各位朋友,同学们,请让我自我介绍一下,我是杨玉良,复旦大学的校长。

今天请来美利坚合众国总统奥巴马先生,他对中国进行国事访问,今天来到这里与中国青年对话,而且我非常高兴作为主持人在这里主持这场对话。因为奥巴马总统非常重视中美两国人民之间的沟通和交流,尤其是重视我们年轻人之间的沟通和交流。

所以今天我们将用一种非常轻松、自由的方式,而且我相信也将会是愉快的方式,奥巴马总统将和大家一起讨论中美关系问题,包括这个世界未来的问题,包括我们人类所面临的所有的可能的全球性的挑战性问题。

今天在现场的所有的同事们,包括同学们,都可以现场提问题。但同时我们也会选择问题,从网络上选择一些问题,选择由网民向奥巴马提问的问题。用英文来提问题,也可以用英文回答。

如果你觉得你的英文还不足够表达你深邃的思想的话,你可以用中文来提问和中文来回答问题。我想在正式开始之前,我们美利坚合众国的驻华大使洪博培先生有几句话要讲。

[洪博培]杨校长,谢谢你。可是我们在上海我应该说家乡话,侬好。这么多人,今天就是太好了,美中关系30年,这个时刻从双边地区和全球的角度来说,最适合进行一场好的交谈,这种活动在中国没有先例。

我们两国元首具体说过,他们要推动一个积极建设性全面的关系。如果没有美中两国的合作,几乎没有哪个全球性挑战能得到解决。我们面临的挑战是把我们的交往提到一个更高的水平,有谁比我们更高层领导人更适合参加我们的讨论呢?

那我很荣幸向你们介绍第44任美国总统贝拉克•奥巴马。

PRESIDENT OBAMA:  Nong hao! Good afternoon.  It is a great honor for me to be here in Shanghai, and to have this opportunity to speak with all of you.  I'd like to thank Fudan University's President Yang for his hospitality and his gracious welcome.  I'd also like to thank our outstanding Ambassador, Jon Huntsman, who exemplifies the deep ties and respect between our nations.  I don't know what he said, but I hope it was good.  (Laughter.)

[奥巴马] 侬好!诸位下午好。我感到很荣幸能够有机会到上海跟你们交谈,我要感谢复旦大学的杨校长,感谢他的款待和热情的欢迎。我还想感谢我们出色的大使洪博培,他是我们两国间深厚的纽带。我不知道他刚才说什么,但是希望他说得很好。

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What I'd like to do is to make some opening comments, and then what I'm really looking forward to doing is taking questions, not only from students who are in the audience, but also we've received questions online, which will be asked by some of the students who are here in the audience, as well as by Ambassador Huntsman.  And I am very sorry that my Chinese is not as good as your English, but I am looking forward to this chance to have a dialogue.

我今天准备这样,先做一个开场白,我真正希望做的是回答在座的问题,不但回答在座的学生问题,同时还可以从网上得到一些问题,由在座的一些学生和洪博培大使代为提问。很抱歉,我的中文远不如你们的英文,所以我期待和你们的对话。

This is my first time traveling to China, and I'm excited to see this majestic country.  Here, in Shanghai, we see the growth that has caught the attention of the world -- the soaring skyscrapers, the bustling streets and entrepreneurial activity.  And just as I'm impressed by these signs of China's journey to the 21st century, I'm eager to see those ancient places that speak to us from China's distant past.  Tomorrow and the next day I hope to have a chance when I'm in Beijing to see the majesty of the Forbidden City and the wonder of the Great Wall.  Truly, this is a nation that encompasses both a rich history and a belief in the promise of the future.

这是我首次访问中国,我看到你们博大的国家,感到很兴奋。在上海这里,我们看到了瞩目的增长,高耸的塔楼,繁忙的街道,还有企业家的精神。这些都是中国步入21世纪的迹象,让我感到赞叹。同时我也急切的要看到向我们展现中国古老的古迹,明天和后天我要到北京去看雄伟壮丽的故宫和令人叹为观止的长城,这个国度既有丰富的历史,又有对未来憧憬的信念。

The same can be said of the relationship between our two countries.  Shanghai, of course, is a city that has great meaning in the history of the relationship between the United States and China.  It was here, 37 years ago, that the Shanghai Communique opened the door to a new chapter of engagement between our governments and among our people. 

而我们两国的关系也是如此,上海在美中关系的历史中是个具有意义的重大城市,在37年前,《上海公报》打开了我们两国政府和两国人民接触交往的新的篇章。

However, America's ties to this city -- and to this country -- stretch back further, to the earliest days of America's independence. In 1784, our founding father, George Washington, commissioned the Empress of China, a ship that set sail for these shores so that it could pursue trade with the Qing Dynasty. Washington wanted to see the ship carry the flag around the globe, and to forge new ties with nations like China.  This is a common American impulse -- the desire to reach for new horizons, and to forge new partnerships that are mutually beneficial.

不过美国与这个国家的纽带可以追溯更久远的过去,追溯到美国独立的初期,乔治•华盛顿组织了皇后号的下水仪式,这个船成功前往大清王朝,华盛顿希望看到这艘船前往各地,与中国结成新的纽带。希望与中国开辟新的地平线,建立新的伙伴关系。

Over the two centuries that have followed, the currents of history have steered the relationship between our countries in many directions.  And even in the midst of tumultuous winds, our people had opportunities to forge deep and even dramatic ties. For instance, Americans will never forget the hospitality shown to our pilots who were shot down over your soil during World War II, and cared for by Chinese civilians who risked all that they had by doing so.  And Chinese veterans of that war still warmly greet those American veterans who return to the sites where they fought to help liberate China from occupation.

在其后的两个世纪中,历史洪流使我们两国关系向许多不同的方向发展,而即使在最动荡的方向中,我们的两国人民也打造了很深的,甚至有戏剧性的纽带,比如美国人永远不会忘记,在二战期间,美国飞行员在中国上空被击落后,当地人民对他们的款待,中国公民冒着失去一切的危险保护着他们。而参加二战的中国老兵仍然欢迎故地重游的美国老兵,他们在那里参战。

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A different kind of connection was made nearly 40 years ago when the frost between our countries began to thaw through the simple game of table tennis.  The very unlikely nature of this engagement contributed to its success -- because for all our differences, both our common humanity and our shared curiosity were revealed.  As one American player described his visit to China -- "[The]people are just like us…The country is very similar to America, but still very different." Of course this small opening was followed by the achievement of the Shanghai Communique, and the eventual establishment of formal relations between the United States and China in 1979.  And in three decades, just look at how far we have come.

40年前,我们两国间开启了又一种联系,两国关系开始解冻,通过乒乓球的比赛解冻关系。我们两国之间有着分歧,但是我们也有着共同的人性及有着共同的好奇,就像一位乒乓球人员所说的一样,那的国家就是一样,但是这个小小的开头带来了《上海公报》的问世,最终还带来了美中在1979年建交。在其后的30年我们又取得了长足的进展。

In 1979, trade between the United States and China stood at roughly $5 billion -- today it tops over $400 billion each year. The commerce affects our people's lives in so many ways.  America imports from China many of the computer parts we use, the clothes we wear; and we export to China machinery that helps power your industry.  This trade could create even more jobs on both sides of the Pacific, while allowing our people to enjoy a better quality of life.  And as demand becomes more balanced, it can lead to even broader prosperity.

1979年中美贸易仅有500亿美元,而今天美中贸易已经接近4000亿美元。贸易在许多方面影响人民的生活,比如美国电脑中许多部件,还有穿的衣服都是从中国进口的,我们向中国出口中国工业要使用的机器,这种贸易可以在太平洋两岸创造更多的就业机会,让我们的人民过上质量更高的生活。

In 1979, the political cooperation between the United States and China was rooted largely in our shared rivalry with the Soviet Union.  Today, we have a positive, constructive and comprehensive relationship that opens the door to partnership on the key global issues of our time -- economic recovery and the development of clean energy; stopping the spread of nuclear weapons and the scourge of climate change; the promotion of peace and security in Asia and around the globe.  All of these issues will be on the agenda tomorrow when I meet with President Hu.

在需求趋于平衡的过程中,这种贸易可以是更广阔的贸易。如今我们有着积极合作和全面的关系,为我们在当前重大的全球问题上建立伙伴关系打开了大门,这些问题包括经济复苏、洁净能源的开发、制止核武器扩散以及应对气候变化。还有在亚洲及全球各地促进和平和稳定,所有这些问题我明天与胡主席会谈时都会谈到。

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And in 1979, the connections among our people were limited. Today, we see the curiosity of those ping-pong players manifested in the ties that are being forged across many sectors.  The second highest number of foreign students in the United States come from China, and we've seen a 50 percent increase in the study of Chinese among our own students.  There are nearly 200 "friendship cities" drawing our communities together.  American and Chinese scientists cooperate on new research and discovery.  And of course, Yao Ming is just one signal of our shared love of basketball -- I'm only sorry that I won't be able to see a Shanghai Sharks game while I'm visiting.

1979年的时候,我们两国人民的联系十分有限。当年在乒乓球领域的好奇如今已延伸到许多领域,美国现在数量最多的留学生都来自中国。而在美国的学生中,学中文的人数增加了50%。我们两国有近200个友好城市,美中科学家在许多新的研究领域和发现领域进行合作。我们两国人民都热爱篮球,姚明就是个例子。不过,此行中我不能观看上海鲨鱼队的比赛,有点遗憾。

It is no coincidence that the relationship between our countries has accompanied a period of positive change.  China has lifted hundreds of millions of people out of poverty -- an accomplishment unparalleled in human history -- while playing a larger role in global events.  And the United States has seen our economy grow along with the standard of living enjoyed by our people, while bringing the Cold War to a successful conclusion.

我们两国之间的这种关系给我们带来了积极的变化,这并不是偶然的,中国使得亿万人民脱贫,而这种成就是人类历史上史无前例的。而中国在全球问题中也发挥更大的作用,美国也目睹了我们经济的成长。

There is a Chinese proverb:  "Consider the past, and you shall know the future."  Surely, we have known setbacks and challenges over the last 30 years.  Our relationship has not been without disagreement and difficulty.  But the notion that we must be adversaries is not predestined -- not when we consider the past.  Indeed, because of our cooperation, both the United States and China are more prosperous and more secure.  We have seen what is possible when we build upon our mutual interests, and engage on the basis of mutual respect.

中国有句古言,温故而知新。当然,我们过去30年中也遇到了挫折和挑战,我们的关系并不是没有困难的,没有分歧的。“但是我们必须一定是对手”的这种想法不应该是一成不变的。由于我们两国的合作,美中两国都变得更加繁荣、更加安全。我们基于相互的利益、相互的尊重就能有成就。

And yet the success of that engagement depends upon understanding -- on sustaining an open dialogue, and learning about one another and from one another.  For just as that American table tennis player pointed out -- we share much in common as human beings, but our countries are different in certain ways.

不过,这种接触的成功要取决于我们要彼此了解,要能够进行开诚布公的对话,彼此进行了解。就像当年美国乒乓球运动员所说的,我们作为人有着共同的向往,但是我们两国又不同。

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I believe that each country must chart its own course.  China is an ancient nation, with a deeply rooted culture.  The United States, by comparison, is a young nation, whose culture is determined by the many different immigrants who have come to our shores, and by the founding documents that guide our democracy.

我认为每个国家都应该勾画出自己要走的路,中国是一个文明古国,它有着博大精深的文化。相对而言,美国是一个年轻的国家,它的文化受到来自许多不同国家移民的影响,还受到我们民主制度文件的影响。

Those documents put forward a simple vision of human affairs, and they enshrine several core principles -- that all men and women are created equal, and possess certain fundamental rights; that government should reflect the will of the people and respond to their wishes; that commerce should be open, information freely accessible; and that laws, and not simply men, should guarantee the administration of justice.

我有一个非常简单的向往,代表了一些核心的原则,就是所有的人生来平等,都有着基本的权利,而政府应当反映人们的意志,贸易应该是开放的,信息流通应当是自由的,而法律要保证这个公平。

Of course, the story of our nation is not without its difficult chapters.  In many ways -- over many years -- we have struggled to advance the promise of these principles to all of our people, and to forge a more perfect union.  We fought a very painful civil war, and freed a portion of our population from slavery.  It took time for women to be extended the right to vote, workers to win the right to organize, and for immigrants from different corners of the globe to be fully embraced.  Even after they were freed, African Americans persevered through conditions that were separate and not equal, before winning full and equal rights.

当然,我们的国家历史也不是没有过困难的地方,从很多方面来讲,很多年以来,我们是通过斗争来促进这些原则或者使所有的人民能够享受到。为了缔造一个更完美的联合,我们也打过一个很痛苦的内战,把一部分我们被奴役的人口释放出来,经过一段时间才能使妇女有投票权,劳工有组织权,包括来自各地的移民能够全部被接受。即使他们被解放以后,非洲裔美国人也和美国人经过一些分开的、不平等的条件,经过一段时间才争取到全面的平等权利。

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None of this was easy.  But we made progress because of our belief in those core principles, which have served as our compass through the darkest of storms.  That is why Lincoln could stand up in the midst of civil war and declare it a struggle to see whether any nation, conceived in liberty, and "dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal" could long endure. That is why Dr. Martin Luther King could stand on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial and ask that our nation live out the true meaning of its creed.  That's why immigrants from China to Kenya could find a home on our shores; why opportunity is available to all who would work for it; and why someone like me, who less than 50 years ago would have had trouble voting in some parts of America, is now able to serve as its President.

所有这些是不容易的。但是我们对这些核心原则的信念使我们取得了进展,在最黑暗的风暴当中作为我们的指南针。这是为什么林肯在内战期间站起来说过,任何一个国家以自由、以所有人类平等的原则能够长久的存在,也就是为什么金博士在林肯纪念馆的前台站起来,说我们国家要必须真正的实现我们的信念。也就是为什么来自中国或者肯尼亚的移民能够到我们的家,也是为什么一个不到50年前在某些地方连投票都遇到困难的人,现在就能够做到那个国家的总统。

And that is why America will always speak out for these core principles around the world.   We do not seek to impose any system of government on any other nation, but we also don't believe that the principles that we stand for are unique to our nation.  These freedoms of expression and worship -- of access to information and political participation -- we believe are universal rights.  They should be available to all people, including ethnic and religious minorities -- whether they are in the United States, China, or any nation.  Indeed, it is that respect for universal rights that guides America's openness to other countries; our respect for different cultures; our commitment to international law; and our faith in the future.

这就是为什么美国永远为了全世界各地的核心原则说话,我们不寻求把任何政治体制强制给任何国家,但是我们也不认为我们所支持的这些原则是我们国家所独有的,这些表达自由、宗教崇拜自由、接触信息的机会、政治的参与,我们认为这些是普世的权利,应该是所有人民能够享受到的,包括少数民族和宗教的族群,不管是在中国、美国和任何国家,对于普遍权利的尊敬,作为美国对其他国家的开放态度的指导原则,我们对其他文化的尊重,我们对国际法的承诺和对未来的信念的原则。

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se are all things that you should know about America.  I also know that we have much to learn about China.  Looking around at this magnificent city -- and looking around this room -- I do believe that our nations hold something important in common, and that is a belief in the future.  Neither the United States nor China is content to rest on our achievements.  For while China is an ancient nation, you are also clearly looking ahead with confidence, ambition, and a commitment to see that tomorrow's generation can do better than today's.

所有这些都是你们知道关于美国的一些情况,我们有很多要从中国学习。我们看看这个伟大城市的各地,也看看这个房间,我就相信我们两国有很重要的共同点,也就是对未来的信念,不管是美国还是中国,对现在的成就不能感到自满。虽然中国是一个古老的国家,你们也是充满信心展望未来,致力于下一代能够比这一代做的更好。

In addition to your growing economy, we admire China's extraordinary commitment to science and research -- a commitment borne out in everything from the infrastructure you build to the technology you use.  China is now the world's largest Internet user -- which is why we were so pleased to include the Internet as a part of today's event.  This country now has the world's largest mobile phone network, and it is investing in the new forms of energy that can both sustain growth and combat climate change -- and I'm looking forward to deepening the partnership between the United States and China in this critical area tomorrow.  But above all, I see China's future in you -- young people whose talent and dedication and dreams will do so much to help shape the 21st century.

除了你们不断增长的经济之外,我们很配合中国在科学和研究方面所投入的力量,包括建设的基础设施和使用的技术,中国是世界上使用互联网技术最多的国家,这就是我们很高兴互联网是今天活动的一部分,这个国家也拥有最大的移动电话网络,对新的投资保持继续增长,应对气候变化方面有新的投资,我也希望两国加强这方面的合作。但是更重要是看到年轻人你们的才能、你们的献身精神、你们的梦想在21世纪实现方面会发挥很大的作用。

I've said many times that I believe that our world is now fundamentally interconnected.  The jobs we do, the prosperity we build, the environment we protect, the security that we seek -- all of these things are shared.  And given that interconnection, power in the 21st century is no longer a zero-sum game; one country's success need not come at the expense of another.  And that is why the United States insists we do not seek to contain China's rise.  On the contrary, we welcome China as a strong and prosperous and successful member of the community of nations -- a China that draws on the rights, strengths, and creativity of individual Chinese like you.

我说过很多次,我认为世界是互相连接的,我们所做的工作,我们所建立的繁荣,我们所保护的环境,我们所追求的安全,所有这些都是共同的,而且是互相连接的,所以21世纪的实力不在零和游戏,一个国家成功不应该以另外一个国家的牺牲作为代价。这就是我们为什么不寻求遏制中国的崛起。相反,我们欢迎中国作为一个国际社会的强的、繁荣的、成功的成员。

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To return to the proverb -- consider the past.  We know that more is to be gained when great powers cooperate than when they collide.  That is a lesson that human beings have learned time and again, and that is the example of the history between our nations.  And I believe strongly that cooperation must go beyond our government.  It must be rooted in our people -- in the studies we share, the business that we do, the knowledge that we gain, and even in the sports that we play.  And these bridges must be built by young men and women just like you and your counterparts in America.

再回到刚才的谚语,我们应该考虑过去。在大的国家合作的时候,就比互相碰撞会取得更多的好处,这就是人类在历史上不断吸取的教训。我认为我们合作应该是超越政府间的合作,应该是以人民为基础的,我们所研究的内容、我们所从事的生意、我们所获得的知识、我们所进行的体育比赛……所有这些桥梁必须是年轻人共同合作建立起来。

That's why I'm pleased to announce that the United States will dramatically expand the number of our students who study in China to 100,000.  And these exchanges mark a clear commitment to build ties among our people, as surely as you will help determine the destiny of the 21st century.  And I'm absolutely confident that America has no better ambassadors to offer than our young people.  For they, just like you, are filled with talent and energy and optimism about the history that is yet to be written.

这就是我为什么非常高兴我们要大大地宣布我们到中国学习的留学生人数,要增加到10万人。这样交流就会表现出我们是愿意致力于加强两国人民的联系,而且我是绝对有信心的。对美国来说,最好的大使、最好的使者就是年轻人,他们和你们一样,很有才能,充满活力,对未来的历史还是很乐观的。

So let this be the next step in the steady pursuit of cooperation that will serve our nations, and the world.  And if there's one thing that we can take from today's dialogue, I hope that it is a commitment to continue this dialogue going forward.

这是我们合作的下一步,惠及两国和全世界。今天可以吸收的一个最重要的内容就是我们不断地向前推进。

So thank you very much.  And I look forward now to taking some questions from all of you.  Thank you very much.  (Applause.)

非常感谢。现在欢迎各位提问题。

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