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中级美国英语助动词 can, may, will等

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里我们要学习怎么用助动词  can,  c-a-n,   can,  may,  m-a-y,  may,  will,w-i-l-l, will 和 might, m-i-g-h-t, might. 首先我们依照惯例, 先请你听一段对话, 内容是说 peter   在学校里跟同学 Mary谈到了学校里的活动. 我们还是先用自然速度念一遍, 请你注意听英文老师的发音和声调.

   M: Hi, Mary.
   F:  Oh, hello, Peter. How are you?
   M: I'm fine. Can you have a cup of coffee with me?
   F:  I can't now. I have an exam tomorrow. I have to study for it.
   M: You're taking a lot of courses this year.
   F:  I might drop some of them. Are you still with the football team?
   M: Yes, we will play a game this Friday.
   F:  May I go to see you play?
   M: Yes, of course.
   F:  I hope the weather will be sunny Friday.
   M: I hope so, too.

   现在我们用慢速度再把这段对话念一遍.

   M: Hi, Mary.
   F:  Oh, hello, Peter. How are you?
   M: I'm fine. Can you have a cup of coffee with me?
   F:  I can't now. I have an exam tomorrow. I have to study for it.
   M: You're taking too many courses this year.
   F:  I might drop some of them. Are you still with the football team?
   M: Yes, we will play a game this Friday.
   F:  May I go to see you play?
   M: Yes, of course.
   F:  I hope the weather will be sunny Friday.
   M: I hope so, too.

   现在我把刚才那段会话里包含了助动词的句子挑出来,   用慢速度再念一遍给你听.

   M: Can you have a cup of coffee with me?
   F:  I can't now.
   M: I might drop some of them.
   M: We will play a game this Friday.
   F:  May I go to see you play?
   F:  I hope the weather will be sunny Friday.

二.CAN

   首先我们学习怎么用 can, c-a-n, can. 这个字表示 "有能力"   作一件事. 它的否定式是 cannot,  c-a-n-n-o-t,  cannot, 可以减缩为 can't, 意思当然就是说 "没有能力"作一件事. 在第一组练习里,  我们给你举一些例子,   说 Peter 和 Mary  能作什么事而不能作什么事.  每个句子我们念两次, 在念第二次的时候请你也跟着念.

   M: Peter can have a cup of coffee but Mary can't.
   F:  Peter can have a cup of coffee but Mary can't.
   M: Peter can play football but Mary can't.
   F:  Peter can play football but Mary can't.
   M: Peter can swim but Mary can't.
   F:  Peter can swim but Mary can't.
   M: Mary can dance but Peter can't.
   F:  Mary can dance but Peter can't.
   M: Mary can sing but Peter can't.
   F:  Mary can sing but Peter can't.
   M: Mary can speak French but Peter can't.
   F:  Mary can speak French but Peter can't.

   下面我们换一个方式作练习. 由学生问老师: "我能作什么呢?" 然后老师提出一
个词组, 请学生用这个词组来回答问题. 我先举一个例子:


   F:  What can I do?
   M: join the gymnastics team
   F:  I can join the gymnastics team.
   M: join the track team
   F:  I can join the track team.
   好, 现在我们开始做练习:
   F:  What can I do?
   M: join the gymnastics team
   F:  I can join the gymnastics team.
   M: join the track team
   F:  I can join the track team.
   M: drive a car
   F:  I can drive a car.
   M: cook fancy dishes
   F:  I can cook fancy dishes.
   M: speak English well
   F:  I can speak English well.
   M: run fast
   F:  I can run fast.
   M: sing an American song
   F:  I can sing an American song.

三.MAY 和 MIGHT

   学完了 can 的用法, 现在我们看看怎么用助动词 may 和 might. 这两个字都表示将来事情可能发生,在句子里可以交换使用.比方 "将来彼得可能成为职业选手"这句话可以这么说: Peter   may   become  a   professional  player. 也可以这么说:Peter  might become a professional player.

   好, 下面我们来作一组练习. 练习的内容都是说彼得将来可能有什么成就. 现在我们请英文老师提出一个用 may 这个字的句子, 请学生用might 这个字来代替.在学生作练习的时候也请你跟着作.

   M: Peter may become a professional player.
   F:  Peter might become a professional player.
   M: Peter may become a sport star.
   F:  Peter might become a sport star.
   M: Peter may play in the Olympic Games.
   F:  Peter might play in the Olympic Games.

   下面我们来看一看玛丽将来可能有什么成就. 还是请你照样跟着练习.

   M: Mary may become a professional singer.
   F:  Mary might become a professional singer.
   M: Mary may have a career in singing.
   F:  Mary might have a career in singing.
   M: Mary may sing in a concert.
   F:  Mary might sing in a concert.

四.用 MAY 表请求

   刚才我们学习了 can  跟 can't, 还有 may 跟 might 的用法, 下面我们要学习 may
的另外一种用法. may 这个字除了可以表示可能性之外还可以用来表示允许或是请求.

   在上一课里我们提到彼得夏天里要到纽约去旅行的事情; 下面一组练习谈的都是彼得问妈妈到了纽约准不准他作什么事的问题.首先由彼得问一个问题,然后你会听到 yes  或是no. 请你根据你听到的来回答问题. 首先举个例子:

   M: May I go to New York with the school tour?
   F:  Yes!
   F:  Yes, you may go to New York with the school tour

   好, 现在我们开始做练习, 在你答覆问题之后, 请你听正确答案.

   M: May I go to New York with the school tour?
   F:  Yes!
   F:  Yes, you may go to New York with the school tour.
   M: May I go to New York alone?
   F:  No!
   F:  No, you may not go to New York alone.
   M: May I take a lot of money with me?
   F:  No!
   F:  No, you may not take a lot of money with you.
   M: May I take two suitcases with me?
   F:  Yes!
   F:  Yes, you may take two suitcases with you.
   M: May I visit some beautiful churches in New York?
   F:  Yes!
   F:  Yes, you may visit some beautiful churches in New York.

   下面我们多举几个例子. 每个例子我们念两遍, 请你听一遍, 重复一遍:

   M: May I have a cup of coffee with you?
   F:  May I have a cup of coffee with you?
   M: May I go to see you play football?
   F:  May I go to see you play football?
   M: May I have four tomatoes and a dozen eggs?
   F:  May I have four tomatoes and a dozen eggs?
   M: May I sit next to you?
   F:  May I sit next to you?
   M: May I dance with you?
   F:  May I dance with you?
   M: May I take you home?
   F:  May I take you home?
   M: May I use your telephone?
   F:  May I use your telephone?
   M: May I help you?
   F:  May I help you?

五.WILL

   好了, 现在我们学习今天要教的最后一个助动词 will. 这个字是表示将来会发生什么事.下面我们举一些例子.每个句子还是念两遍,还是请你听一遍,重复一遍.

   M: Peter will play football this Friday.
   F:  Peter will play football this Friday.
   M: Mary will go to see the football game this Friday.
   F:  Mary will go to see the football game this Friday.
   M: Mary will see Peter this Friday.
   F:  Mary will see Peter this Friday.
   M: The weather will be sunny this Friday.
   F:  The weather will be sunny this Friday.

   现在我们学习怎么样把刚才那些句子加上疑问词变成问句. 比方老师说: Peter
will play  football  this Friday. 接着老师给你一个疑问词 what, 你就把句子改成:What  will Peter  play  this Friday?   好,  现在我们开始做练习.  在你作完一个问句之后, 就请注意听正确的答案.

   M: Peter will play football this Friday.
   M: What
   F:  What will Peter play this Friday?
   M: Mary will go to see the football game this Friday.
   M: When
   F:  When will Mary go to see the football game?
   M: Mary will see Peter this Friday.
   M: Who
   F:  Who will Mary see this Friday?
   M: The weather will be sunny this Friday.
   M: How
   F:  How will the weather be this Friday?

   will 这个字还可以用来表示一个人的志愿. 下面这组练习内容都是问你肯不肯做什么事. 每个句子我们还是念两遍, 请你听一遍, 重复一遍. 

   M: Will you sing a song for us?
   F:  Will you sing a song for us?
   M: Will you go to the bank with me?
   F:  Will you go to the bank with me?
   M: Will you take me to the airport?
   F:  Will you take me to the airport?
   M: Will you buy two loaves of bread?
   F:  Will you buy two loaves of bread?

   下面一组练习是把 will 跟它的否定式 will not 也就是 won't 作个比较. 还是请你听一遍, 跟着重复一遍.

   M: Peter won't go to the supermarket but Mary will.
   F:  Peter won't go to the supermarket but Mary will.
   M: Peter won't cook for you but Mary will.
   F:  Peter won't cook for you but Mary will.
   M: Mary won't go swimming with you but Peter will.
   F:  Mary won't go swimming with you but Peter will.
   M: Mary won't have a cup of coffee but Peter will.
   F:  Mary won't have a cup of coffee but Peter will.

六.听短文回答问题

   现在我们来作听力测验. 首先还是请你听一段文章, 内容是说一般美国中学生,
比方彼得, 在学校里面能够参加什么样的体育活动,将来可能有什么样的成就. 我们是先用正常速度念一遍, 请你注意地听.

   American  high  school  students,   like  Peter, may  play on school sports teams.   Most   high  schools  have  football,  baseball, basketball  and    track   teams.  Some schools might also  have   swimming   teams,   gymnastics  teams  and    tennis  teams.    Good  players  can  join   university teams when they graduate from high schools. The very best  will become popular

  sports stars.  The best  football, basketball and  tennis    players  can  become  professional.

   That means they  will have a career in sports and  will get money   when they  play. The best  track and gymnastics  students may go to the Olympic Games on the U.S. Olympic team.

   刚才那段文章你听懂了没有? 要是没全部懂, 等一会儿还有机会听. 现在我先请
英文老师把今天测验的三个问题念给你听.

   第一个问题是:
   M: What sports teams do most American high schools have?
   第二个问题是:
   M: What kind of players will become popular sports stars?
   第三个问题是:
   M: What does "professional players" mean?

   好, 现在我们再把刚才那段文章用慢速度念一遍, 请你注意听:

   American  high  school  students,   like  Peter, may  play on school sports teams.   Most   high  schools  have  football,  baseball, basketball  and    track   teams.  Some schools might also  have   swimming   teams,   gymnastics  teams  and    tennis  teams.    Good  players  can  join   university teams when they graduate from high schools. The very best  will become popular   sports stars.  The best  football, basketball and   tennis   players  can  become  professional.   That means they  will have a career in sports and  will get money  when they  play. The best   track and gymnastics  students may go to the Olympic Games on the U.S. Olympic team.

   现在要请你回答今天测验的三个问题. 在你回答之后, 还是请你听正确的答案,看你答对了没有.

   第一个问题是: 
   M: What sports teams do most American high schools have?
   F:  They have football,baseball,basketball and track teams.
   下面是第二个问题:
   M: What kind of players will become popular sports stars?
   F:  The very best players will become popular sports stars.
   现在请你回答第三个问题:
   M: What does "professional players" mean?
   F:  It means to have a career in sports and to get money to play.

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