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中级美国英语助动词 should和must

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里, 我们要学习的是助动词should, s-h-o-u-l-d, should 跟must, m-u-s-t, must的用法. 我们也要看看这两个助动词的否定式should not也就shouldn't 和must not也就是mustn't 在意思上跟don't have to这个词组有什么分别.

   首先我还是请两位英文老师给你念一段对话, 请你注意听英文老师的发音和声调.

   F:  Peter, can you help me for a minute?
   M: Yes, what do you want me to do?
   F:  Will you take the garbage out?
   M: Do I have to do it now?
   F:  Well, you don't have to it now. But don't forget to do it today.
   M: All right. I really must go now; otherwise I'll be late for school.
   F:  You have an  exam this morning, don't you?  You mustn't be late.  Maybe  you should ask your father for a ride.

   好, 现在我们再把刚才那段对话用慢速度念一遍, 请你注意听:

   F:  Peter, can you help me for a minute?
   M: Yes, what do you want me to do?
   F:  Will you take the garbage out?
   M: Do I have to do it now?
   F:  Well, you don't have to. But don't forget to do it today.
   M: All right. I really must go now; otherwise I'll be late for school.
   F:  You have an  exam this morning, don't you?  You mustn't be late.  Maybe  you should ask your father for a ride.

   在彼得跟他母亲的这段对话里,  有几个句子用了我们今天要学的助动词 should,   must  跟它们的否定式 shouldn't,  mustn't   还有   have  to  跟 don't   have  to 这两个词组, 现在我请老师把包含了这些词的句子用慢速度再念一遍给你听:

   M: Do I have to do it now?
   F:  You don't have to.
   M: I really must go now.
   F:  You mustn't be late. Maybe you should ask your father for a ride.

二.SHOULD

   好了,  现在该作练习了.  首先我们来学怎么用 should. 这个字是用来劝告别人应该做些什么事. 比方有一句话: "天冷了, 你应该穿毛衣," 这句话, 你可以这样说: It's cold. You should wear a sweater.

   好, 现在我们给你多举一些例子. 每个句子我们念两遍, 请你听一遍, 跟着重复一遍.

   M: It's cold. You should wear a sweater.
   F:  It's cold.You should wear a sweater.
   M: Peter is late. He should ask his father for a ride.
   F:  Peter is late. He should ask his father for a ride.
   M: Henry is heavy. He should get in shape again.
   F:  Henry is heavy. He should get in shape again.
   M: Kate is hungry. She should eat something.
   F:  Kate is hungry. She should eat something.
   M: Your room is messy. You should clean it up.
   F:  Your room is messy. You should clean it up.

   好, 现在我们换一个方式作练习, 先由老师说一句话, 比方: "下雨了!"  It's   raining.    接着老师给你一个词组:  "带雨伞"   carry    an   umbrella   请你用   should 这个字来完成句子, 所以答案就是: "下雨了, 你应该带雨伞". It's   raining. You  should  carry  an umbrella. 好, 现在我们开始练习. 在你作完句子之后,请注意听正确的答案.

   M: Peter is a good player.
   M: join the team
   F:  peter is a good player. He should join the team.
   M: Henry is tired.
   M: take a rest
   F:  Henry is tired. He should take a rest.
   M: Kate is thirsty.
   M: have a glass of water.
   F:  Kate is thirsty. She should have a glass of water.
   M: Your shirt is dirty.
   M: change into a clean one
   F:  Your shirt is dirty. You should change into a clean one.
   M: It's raining.
   M: carry an umbrella
   F:  It's raining. You should carry an umbrella.

   刚才那组练习你都作对了吗? 下面我们来练习 should    的否定式 should  not. 这两个字可以简缩为  shouldn't,    意思就是劝人不要做什么事. 我们作的是换字练习.   老师先念一句话,   接着老师给你一个新的词组,   请你把新的词组代换到原来的句子里. 每作完一句, 就请你听正确答案.

   M: You shouldn't spend so much money.
   M: drink so much coffee
   F:  You shouldn't drink so much coffee.
   M: buy so many records
   F:  You shouldn't buy so many records.
   M: go to so many movies
   F:  You shouldn't go to so many movies.
   M: drive so fast
   F:  You shouldn't drive so fast.

三.MUST

   下面我们来学另外一个助动词  must. 这个字表示必须作某件事情, 没有其他选择.  比方有一句话: " 亨利要上飞机了, 他非有飞机票不可 ", 这句话英文可以这么说:   Henry is going on an airplane. He must have a ticket.

   现在我们给你多举一些例子.     每个句子我们还是念两遍,  还是请你听一遍, 重复一遍.

   M: Henry is going on an airplane. He must have a ticket.
   F:  Henry is going on an airplane. He must have a ticket.
   M: Kate is going to a formal party. She must wear a dress.
   F:  Kate is going to a formal party. She must wear a dress.
   M: Linda is going to buy a record. She must save some money.
   F:  Linda is going to buy a record. She must save some money.
   M: Mary has an exam tomorrow. She must study hard.
   F:  Mary has an exam tomorrow. She must study hard.
   M: Peter has a class at 7 o'clock. He must get up early.
   F:  Peter has a class at 7 o'clock. He must get up early.
   M: Susan doesn't have a car. She must go to her job by train.
   F:  Susan doesn't have a car. She must go to her job by train.

   must 的否定式是 must  not, 也可以简缩为 mustn't. 这个词是用来表示一定不应该作的事. 下面这组练习内容都是说彼得在上课的时候不应该作的一些事. 由老师先念一个句子: peter  mustn't  sleep  in   class. 接着老师念一个新词组: eat  lunch. 请你用新词组把原来的句子改为: Peter mustn't eat lunch in class.  好, 现在我们开始作换字练习. 每作完一句就请你听正确答案.

   M: Peter mustn't sleep in class.
   M: eat lunch
   F:  Peter mustn't eat lunch in class.
   M: talk
   F:  Peter mustn't talk in class.
   M: smoke
   F:  Peter mustn't smoke in class.
   M: write letters
   F:  Peter mustn't write letters in class.
   M: look out of window
   F:  Peter mustn't look out of window in class.
   M: listen to the radio
   F:  Peter mustn't listen to the radio in class.

四.HAVE TO

   刚才我们学习了两个助动词 should 和 must, 还有它们的否定式 shouldn't   和 mustn't, 现在我们来学习另外一个意思跟 must   相同的词组 have to. 这个词组也是用来表示非作某件事不可.    比方有一句话:    "你非得清理院吗?" 英文可以这样说: Do you have to   clean  the   yard? 另外一句话:  "你 得工作挣零用钱吗?"  英文可以这样说: Do  you   have to  work  to earn your allowance? 好, 现在我们来练习这类句子.由老师念一个句子, 然后老师给你一个新词组, 请你用这个新词组作换字练习. 作完一句就听正确答案.

   M: Do you have to clean the yard?
   M: practice everyday
   F:  Do you have to practice everyday?
   M: go to the supermarket
   F:  Do you have to go to the supermarket?
   M: wash the dishes
   F:  Do you have to wash the dishes?
   M: change your clothes
   F:  Do you have to change your clothes?
   M: work to earn your allowance
   F:  Do you have to work to earn your allowance?

   凡是陈述句的主词是第三人称 "他" 的时候, 就应该用 has to. 下面我们要练习这类句子. 老师先用 does, d-o-e-s, does 开头作问句, 请你用 has to 来回答问题. 作完一句还是请你听正确答案.

   M: Does he have to go to New York?
   F:  Yes, he has to go to New York.
   M: Does he have to clean up his room?
   F:  Yes, he has to clean up his room.
   M: Does she have to take the bus?
   F:  Yes, she has to take the bus.
   M: Does she have to drop this course?
   F:  Yes, she has to drop this course.

   have to 的否定式 don't have to 跟 has to 的否定式 doesn't have to 都可以用来表示不一定非得作某件事, 而有其他选择. 在下面一组练习里,  我们要多学学这类句子.   每个句子我们还是念两遍, 还是请你听一遍, 重复一遍:

   M: I don't have to buy records. I can listen to the radio.
   F:  I don't have to buy records. I can listen to the radio.
   M: You don't have to go to the movies. You can stay home and watch television.
   F: You don't have to go to the movies. You can stay home and watch television.
   M: We don't have to take the train. We can take the bus.
   F:  We don't have to take the train. We can take the bus.
   M: They don't have to drink coffee. They can drink tea.
   F:  They don't have to drink coffee. They can drink tea.
   M: He doesn't have to wear a white shirt. He can wear a blue one.
   F:  He doesn't have to wear a white shirt. He can wear a blue one.
   M: She doesn't have to cook. She can go out to eat.
   F:  She doesn't have to cook. She can go out to eat.

五.听短文回答问题

   首先还是请你听一段文章, 内容是说彼得跟琳达兄妹两个人应该帮着作 些什么家事才能每星期拿零用钱.

   现在请你注意听:

   Every  week  Peter  and  Linda receive five dollars from  their parents.    This  money is    their  weekly allowance. It is not a  gift. Peter and Linda must work for the family to earn the money.  Peter  takes  out  the   garbage   and  cleans  the  yard  around  the   house.    He  should  do  it  everyday, but   sometimes he forgets.   Linda  helps  her mother  with   the cooking.   She  also  washes  the  dishes   after  dinner. Peter   and  Linda don't  have to use   their  money  for   food.   They use it for their entertainment.  Sometimes they go to the movies.  Sometimes  they buy   records.  Each  week  they   save  some of their   money to buy something more expensive.

   刚才那段文章你听懂了多少?  文章里包含了今天教的语法,  你是不是注意 到了?   等一会儿我们会把整段文章再念一遍.    现在我们把今天测验的三个问题先念一遍给你听.

   第一个问题是:
   M: What should Peter do to earn his weekly allowance?
   第二个问题是:
   M: Does Linda have to use her allowance for food?
   下面是第三个问题:
   M: How do Peter and Linda spend their money?

   好了,    现在我们再把刚才那段文章用慢速度念一遍给你听, 请你特别注意刚才那三个问题的答案.

   Every  week  Peter  and  Linda receive five dollars from  their parents.    This  money is    their  weekly allowance. It is not a  gift. Peter and Linda must work for the family to earn the money.   Peter  takes  out  the    garbage  and  cleans  the  yard  around  the    house.   He  should  do  it  everyday, but    sometimes he forgets.   Linda  helps  her mother   with   the cooking.  She  also  washes  the   dishes  after   dinner. Peter  and  Linda don't  have to use  their  money   for  food.   They use it for their entertainment.  Sometimes they go to the movies.  Sometimes  they buy   records.  Each  week   they  save  some of their   money to buy something more expensive.

   现在要请你回答今天测验的三个问题. 在你回答以后, 请你听老师说正确答案, 看你答对了没有.

   下面是第一个问题:
   M: What should Peter do to earn his weekly allowance?
   F:  He should take out the garbage and clean the yard around the house.
   第二个问题是:
   M: Does Linda have to use her allowance for food?
   F:  No, she doesn't have to use her allowance for food.
   现在请你回答第三个问题:
   M: How do Peter and Linda spend their money?
   F:  Sometimes they go to the movies. Sometimes they buy records

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