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中级美国英语动词一般过去式

所属教程:中级美国英语

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里,  我们要学习动词的简单过去式,    看看在叙述过去发生的事情的时候动词有什么样的变化.

   现在我们先来听一段会话, 内容是说彼得和他的同学玛丽谈论他们去年的暑假作了些什么事情. 这段会话里用的动词大多数是简单过去式,   请你特别注意听,    同时也要注意英文老师的发音和语调.

   M: Where did you go during vacation?
   F:  I didn't go anywhere. I stayed home.
   M: Did you work?
   F:  No, I took two courses in summer school.
   M: Why did you do that?
   F:  Because I wanted to get ahead a little.
   M: How were those courses?
   F:  They were interesting and I met a lot of people.
   M: You were very busy then.
   F:  Yes, I enjoyed the summer very much.

   现在我请英文老师用慢速度再把刚才那段会话念一遍.

   M: Where did you go during vacation?
   F:  I didn't go anywhere. I stayed home.
   M: Did you work?
   F:  No, I took two courses in summer school.
   M: Why did you do that?
   F:  Because I wanted to get ahead a little.
   M: How were those courses?
   F:  They were interesting and I met a lot of people.
   M: You were very busy then.
   F:  Yes, I enjoyed the summer very much.

   在刚才那段会话里,  用了许多过去式动词,    现在我请英文老师再把那些句子挑选几个出来, 用慢速度念一遍给你听.

   M: Where did you go during vacation?
   F:  I stayed home.
   F:  I took two courses in summer school.
   F:  I wanted to get ahead a little.
   M: How were those courses?
   F:  I met a lot of people.
   F:  I enjoyed the summer very much.

二. 规则动词的过去式

   听了刚才那段会话,你或许已经注意到了英文动词分为规则动词和不规则动词.    规则动词的过去式就是: 在现在式动词后面加上 e-d,    比方: "停留"  stay, s-t-a-y,stay, "要" want, w-a-n-t, want, 都是这类动词.

   下面我们用这些过去式动词作句子.下面这些句子叙述玛丽去年夏天作的事.每个句子我们念两遍, 请你听一遍, 跟着重复一遍:

   M: Mary stayed home last summer.
   F:  Mary stayed home last summer.
   M: Mary enjoyed going to summer school.
   F:  Mary enjoyed going to summer school.
   M: Mary traveled to interesting places.
   F:  Mary traveled to interesting places.
   M: Mary visited her friends.
   F:  Mary visited her friends.

   下面这些句子叙述彼得去年夏天的活动. 还是请你听一遍, 跟着重复一遍.

   M: Peter worked at a gasoline station.
   F:  Peter worked at a gasoline station.
   M: Peter repaired cars.
   F:  Peter repaired cars.
   M: Peter saved a lot of money.
   F:  Peter saved a lot of money.
   M: Peter helped his father.
   F:  Peter helped his father.

   下面我们来作换字练习. 练习的内容都是说玛丽昨天晚上作了什么事,   比方她弹吉他, 学法文等等.  首先由老师念一个句子,  然后老师给你一个新词组, 请你把新词组代换到原来的句子里. 每作完一句就请你听正确的答案.

   M: Mary played guitar last night.
   M: listened to the radio
   F:  Mary listened to the radio last night.
   M: washed dishes
   F:  Mary washed dishes last night.
   M: typed a letter
   F:  Mary typed a letter last night.
   M: studied French
   F:  Mary studied French last night.

   下面一组代换练习叙述的是彼得昨天晚上的活动.  还是请你跟刚才一样练习.每作完一句就听我们的正确答案.

   M: Peter talked to his father last night.
   M: needed some money
   F:  Peter needed some money last night.
   M: borrowed ten dollars
   F:  Peter borrowed ten dollars last night.
   M: watched television
   F:  Peter watched television last night.
   M: cleaned up his room
   F:  Peter cleaned up his room last night.

   刚才我们练习了用规则动词过去式作肯定句, 现在我们看一看怎么样把那些句子变成问句. 在把过去式句子变成问句的时候要用 did,   d-i-d,  did 开头. 请注意:   用了did 之后, 句子里的主要动词保持现在式. 现在我们来作一组练习.   由老师用did 开头作一些过去式的问句,  请学生作简短的答覆. 现在请你注意听.

   M: Did Mary stay home last summer?
   F:  Yes, she did.
   M: Did Mary enjoy going to summer school?
   F:  Yes, she did.
   M: Did Mary work last summer?
   F:  No, she didn't.
   M: Did Peter work at a gasoline station?
   F:  Yes, he did.
   M: Did Peter travel last summer?
   F:  No, he didn't.
   M: Did Peter save a lot of money last summer?
   F:  Yes, he did.

   现在我们换一个方式作练习. 由老师以过去式动词作一个陈述句, 请学生用did跟老师提出的新主词把原来的句子改成问句; 然后学生再用 didn't 作否定的答覆. 首先我们要举个例子:

   M: Peter watched television last weekend.
   M: Mary
   F: Did Mary watch television last weekend?
   F: No, she didn't watch.

   现在我们开始. 请你在学生作练习的时候也跟着作.

   M: Peter watched television last weekend.
   M: Mary
   F:  Did Mary watch television last weekend?
   F:  No, she didn't watch.
   M: Mary listened to the radio last night.
   M: Peter
   F:  Did Peter listen to the radio last night?
   F:  No, he didn't listen.
   M: Henry worked in the office yesterday.
   M: Nancy
   F:  Did Nancy work in the office yesterday?
   F:  No, she didn't work.
   M: Kate cooked last night.
   M: Henry
   F:  Did Henry cook last night?
   F:  No, he didn't cook.

三.不规则动词的过去式

   学完了规则动词过去式, 现在我们来学比较难一点儿的, 也就是不规则动词. 我们给你举一些例子, 男老师念现在式动词, 接着女老师念过去式动词. 请你注意听. 现在我们开始:

做 do did
吃 eat ate
给 give gave
去 go went
有 have had
制作 make  made
遇到 meet met
看见 see saw
卖 sell sold
坐 sit sat
花费 spend spent
拿 take took 

   好了, 现在我们来作换字练习. 练习的内容都是说彼得昨天在学校作了什么事. 比方: 他发表了演说; 跟玛丽吃了午饭等等. 每作完一句就请你听正确答案.

   M: Peter went to school yesterday.
   M: saw Mary in school
   F:  Peter saw Mary in school yesterday.
   M: met a lot of friends
   F:  Peter met a lot of friends yesterday.
   M: made a speech
   F:  Peter made a speech yesterday.
   M: ate lunch with Mary
   F:  Peter ate lunch with Mary yesterday.
   M: had a cup of coffee
   F:  Peter had a cup of coffee yesterday.
   M: sat next to Mary in the library
   F:  Peter sat next to Mary in the library yesterday.
   M: sold two books
   F:  Peter sold two books yesterday.
   M: took Mary home
   F:  Peter took Mary home yesterday.
   M: gave Mary a ride
   F:  Peter gave Mary a ride yesterday.

   在下面一组练习里, 老师用did 作一个过去式的问句,请学生作肯定的答覆.别忘了, 在作肯定答覆的时侯, 必须把现在式动词改成过去式.   好,现在我们开始. 请你在学生作练习的时候也跟着作.

   M: Did Peter spend some money yesterday?
   F:  Yes, he spent some money yesterday
   M: Did Mary meet a lot of friends in summer school?
   F:  Yes, she met a lot of friends in summer school.
   M: Did Peter go to school yesterday?
   F:  Yes, he went to school yesterday.
   M: Did Mary sit next to Peter in class yesterday?
   F:  Yes, she sat next to Peter in class yesterday.
   M: Did Peter eat lunch yesterday?
   F:  Yes, he ate lunch yesterday.
   M: Did Mary have an exam yesterday?
   F:  Yes, she had an exam yesterday.
   M: Did Henry make a fancy dish last week?
   F:  Yes, he made a fancy dish last week.
   M: Did Henry give Nancy a ride to the drugstore last week?
   F:  Yes, he gave Nancy a ride to the drugstore last week.
   M: Did Henry take Nancy home last week?
   F:  Yes, he took Nancy home last week.
   M: Did Nancy see a doctor last week?
   F:  Yes, she saw a doctor last week.

四.听短文回答问题

   首先请你听一段文章, 内容是说彼得和玛丽去年暑假里各作了些什么事,比方玛丽上了暑期学校, 又跟家里人去旅行了;彼得呢在加油站工作, 给人修车, 存了不少钱作大学学费等等.

   现在老师先用自然速度念一遍给你听.

   Most   American  school  students    have  a  long  summer  vacation.  It is usually from June to  September. During this vacation, students often travel or have summer jobs. Some students   take courses in summer school. Mary spent her last summer in summer school. She studied  two courses and she  traveled with her family. They saw interesting  places near  their  home  in Seattle.  Mary's    friend,  Peter,  worked  at  a  gasoline station during the summer.  He sold   gasoline  and  repaired cars.   He made  a  lot  of  money  and  saved nearly all of it.   Peter is  going to  the  university  next  year. He needs money for the  university tuition.

   等一会儿, 我再请英文老师把整段文章用慢速度念一遍.   现在我们先把今天测验的三个问题念给你听.

   第一个问题是:
   M: What do American students do in the summer vacation?
   第二个问题是:
   M: What did Mary do last summer?
   第三个问题是:
   M: Why did Peter save nearly all of his money?

   下面我请英文老师再把整段文章用慢速度念一遍, 请你特别注意刚才三个问题的答案.

   Most   American  school  students    have  a  long  summer  vacation.  It is usually from June to  September. During this vacation, students often travel or have summer jobs. Some students   take courses in summer school. Mary spent her last summer in summer school. She studied  two courses and she  traveled with her family. They saw interesting  places near  their  home  in Seattle.  Mary's    friend,  Peter,  worked  at  a  gasoline station during the summer.  He sold   gasoline  and  repaired cars.   He made  a  lot  of  money  and  saved nearly all of it.   Peter is  going to  the  university  next  year. He needs money for the  university tuition.

   好, 现在请你回答问题. 回答之后, 老师会念出正确的答案,  你自己比较一下, 看答对了没有.

   第一个问题是:
   M: What do American students do in the summer vacation?
   F:  They travel,have summer jobs or take summer courses in summer school.
   第二个问题是:
   M: What did Mary do last summer?
   F:  She studied two courses in summer school and traveled with her family.
   第三个问题是:
   M: Why did Peter save nearly all of his money?
   F:  He did it because he needs money for the university tuition.

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