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中级美国英语现在完成式(一)

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这课里, 我们要学习 have been, h-a-v-e b-e-e-n, have  been 跟 has been, h-a-s b-e-e-n, has been 的用法. 我们也要学习其他现在完成式的句子. 另外我们还要学习 yet, y-e-t, yet 跟 already, a-l-r-e-a-d-y, already 的用法.

    首先我们来听一段对话,   内容是说亨利的大女儿珍妮上大学了, 她上学第一个星期在校园里遇见她的同学鲍勃, 两个人谈起上课的情况.   请你注意听英文老师的发音和语调.

   M: Hi, Jenny! How do you like the university?
   F:  Hello, Bob! I like it very much.
   M: Have you started your classes yet?
   F:  I have been to two lectures, chemistry and history.
   M: Well, how were they?
   F:  They were very large. I'm not used to 300 students in class.
   M: My lectures have been large too.
   F:  Have you been to your English class yet?
   M: Yes. It was quite small. There were only about 20 students in it.
   F:  My classes are so far apart. The campus is sure big.
   M: It  sure  is.  My  morning  classes  are   in  different  buildings.  I  have  to run  between them. Otherwise I'll be late.
   F:  I guess we'll get used to it.

   现在我请英文老师再把对话念一遍. 请你注意听.

   M: Hi, Jenny! How do you like the university?
   F:  Hello, Bob! I like it very much.
   M: Have you started your classes yet?
   F:  I have been to two lectures, chemistry and history.
   M: Well, how were they?
   F:  They were very large. I'm not used to 300 students in class.
   M: My lectures have been large too.
   F:  Have you been to your English class yet?
   M: Yes. It was quite small. There were only about 20 students in it.
   F:  My classes are so far apart. The campus is sure big.
   M: It  sure  is.  My  morning  classes  are   in  different  buildings.  I  have  to run  between them. Otherwise I'll be late.
   F:  I guess we'll get used to it.

   刚才那段对话里有些句子包含了我们今天要学的语法, 现在我们再把这些句子听一遍.

   M: Have you started your classes yet?
   F:  I have been to two lectures.
   M: My lectures have been large too.
   F:  Have you been to your English class yet?

二.HAS BEEN 和 HAVE BEEN

   现在我们开始作练习.  首先请你听一个英文句子: The   campus is  noisy  today.
"今天校园里很吵", 如果我们不指明校园哪一天很吵, 只说 "校园里一直很吵",用英文可以这样说: The campus has been noisy.

   下面我们多多练习这类句子. 这些句子都是跟学校生活有关系的, 比方宿舍一直很吵, 食堂一直很挤等等. 每个句子老师念两遍.

   M: The campus has been noisy.
   F:  The campus has been noisy.
   M: The dormitory has been noisy.
   F:  The dormitory has been noisy.
   M: The student center has been crowded.
   F:  The student center has been crowded.
   M: The cafeteria has been crowded.
   F:  The cafeteria has been crowded.

   下面一些句子的主词都是多数的, 所以用 have been.

   M: The students have been enthusiastic.
   F:  The students have been enthusiastic.
   M: The courses have been difficult.
   F:  The courses have been difficult.
   M: The lectures have been interesting.
   F:  The lectures have been interesting.
   M: The professors have been busy.
   F:  The professors have been busy.

   下面我们换一个方式作练习.  由老师提出一个问题,   比方:  "鲍勃一直很懒吗?"Has Bob been lazy? 或是 "食堂一直很脏吗?" Has the cafeteria been dirty?  听了老师的问题之后, 请你用 has not, 也就是 hasn't 作否定的答覆. 每作完一句, 就请你听老师念正确答案.

   M: Has Bob been lazy?
   F:  No, Bob hasn't been lazy.
   M: Has the cafeteria been dirty?
   F:  No, the cafeteria hasn't been dirty.
   M: Has the dormitory been quiet?
   F:  No, the dormitory hasn't been quiet.
   M: Has the library been crowded?
   F:  No, the library hasn't been crowded.

   请你用 have not, 也就是 haven't 回答下面几个问题.

   M: Have the students been late?
   F:  No, the students haven't been late.
   M: Have the exams been easy?
   F:  No, the exams haven't been easy.
   M: Have the lectures been boring?
   F:  No, the lectures haven't been boring.
   M: Have the professors been strict?
   F:  No, the professors haven't been strict.

三.现在完成式

   刚才我们学习了用 has been  和 have been   来表示从过去到现在一直不变的情况, 下面我们学习包含了规则动词, 过去分词. 比方:   "抵达" arrived, a-r-r-i-v-e-d, arrived跟 "注册" registered, r-e-g-i-s-t-e-r-e-d,   registered 等等字眼的现在完成式句子. 这种句子表示事情已经发生.

   下面这组练习谈的都是珍妮在大学里已经作的事, 比方:她已经到了学校, 已经搬进了宿舍, 已经打了电话给父母, 已经跟指导教授谈了话,上了课等等.  练习的作法是老师先念一个句子, 接着老师提出一个词组,   学生就把这个词组代换到原来的句子里.

   M: Jenny has arrived at the university.
   M: moved into the dormitory
   F:  Jenny has moved into the dormitory.
   M: cleaned up her room
   F:  Jenny has cleaned up her room.
   M: called her parents
   F:  Jenny has called her parents.
   M: talked to her advisor
   F:  Jenny has talked to her advisor.
   M: registered
   F:  Jenny has registered.
   M: attended classes
   F:  Jenny has attended classes.

四.YET 和 ALREADY

   下面我们来学习两个时常跟现在完成式句子一起出现的时间副词,   也就是yet, y-e-t, yet 跟 already, a-l-r-e-a-d-y, already. 这两个字都表示   "已经",  而且都用在句尾; 不过不同的是 yet 用在问句里, 而 already 用在肯定句里. 下面一组练习谈的还是珍妮跟鲍勃在大学里已经作的事. 由老师用 yet 提出问句, 请你用 already 作肯定的答覆. 首先举个例子.

   M:Have Bob and Jenny moved into the dormitory yet?
   F: Yes, they have moved into the dormitory already.

   好, 现在我们开始作练习. 每作完一句, 就请你听正确答案.

   M: Have Bob and Jenny moved into the dormitory yet?
   F:  Yes, they have moved into the dormitory already.
   M: Have Bob and Jenny cleaned up their rooms yet?
   F:  Yes, they have cleaned up their rooms already.
   M: Have Bob and Jenny called their parents yet?
   F:  Yes, they have called their parents already.
   M: Have Bob and Jenny talked to their advisors yet?
   F:  Yes, they have talked to their advisors already.
   M: Have Bob and Jenny registered yet?
   F:  Yes, they have registered already.
   M: Have Bob and Jenny attended classes yet?
   F:  Yes, they have attended classes already.

   在否定句里也可以用 yet 来表示 "还没有" 作某件事.   在下面一组练习里, 老师提出一个问句, 请学生用  yet  作否定的答覆. 这些问题谈的还是鲍勃和珍妮在学校的生活, 比方他们是不是已经自己作饭,   是不是已经参加了学生委员会等等. 请你注意听, 并且在学生回答问题的时候也一起回答.

   M: Have Bob and Jenny cooked for themselves yet?
   F:  No, they haven't cooked for themselves yet.
   M: Have Bob and Jenny joined the student committee yet?
   F:  No, they haven't joined the student committee yet.
   M: Have Bob and Jenny borrowed books from the library yet?
   F:  No, they haven't borrowed books from the library yet.
   M: Have Bob and Jenny finished a course yet?
   F:  No, they haven't finished a course yet.

五.听短文回答问题

   现在我们来作听力测验. 首先我们还是听一段文章.   这段文章的内容是说鲍勃和珍妮在上州立大学,  这些大学有多少学生,   教室散布在校园不同地区,  学生们赶着上课的情况.文章里也提到美国大学生应该念什么课, 哪些是选修, 哪些是必修,什么时候上专业课等等. 现在请你注意听.

   There are  thousands  of  colleges  and   universities in the  United States.   Nearly half of the high  school  graduates in  America go on to  college. Most, like Bob and Jenny, go to large universities. These are state universities.   Some of  these   universities have 40,000 or more students. There are also many small universities with only a few hundred students.  Large universities have many buildings,each building for a particular subject. The buildings are in a  large area.  This area is the university  campus.   Students  often  must  go from one class in one building to the next class in  another  building across campus. They may have  only a few minutes between classes to go from one building to another.  When  students  begin  the  university, they must take classes in many subjects.  These are the required courses.  English  and  math are  usually   required courses and  often a history and a science course are required too. Bob and Jenny  will study mostly   required  courses during their first year. Later, they will specialize, and take courses in one subject.

   今天这段文章比较长,   等一会儿我会请英文老师再用慢速度念一遍. 现在我们
先来听今天测验的三个问题. 

   第一个问题是:
   M: Are all American universities the same size?
   第二个问题是:
   M: Do American university students study different subjects in the same building?
   第三个问题是:
   M: What are some of the required courses in American universities?

   现在我们请英文老师用慢速度再把整段文章念一遍.

   There are  thousands  of  colleges  and   universities in the  United States.   Nearly half of the high  school  graduates in  America go on to  college. Most, like Bob and Jenny, go to large universities. These are state universities.   Some of  these   universities have 40,000 or more students. There are also many small universities with only a few hundred students.  Large universities have many buildings,each building for a particular subject. The buildings  are in a  large area.  This area is the university  campus.   Students  often  must  go from one class in one building to the next class in  another  building across campus.  They may have  only a few minutes between classes to go from one building to another.  When  students  begin  the  university, they must take classes in many subjects.  These are the required courses.  English  and  math are  usually   required courses and  often a history and a science course are required too. Bob and Jenny  will study mostly   required  courses during their first year. Later, they will specialize, and take courses in one subject.

   现在请你回答今天测验的三个问题. 回答之后, 请你听老师念正确答案.

   第一个问题是:
   M: Are all American universities the same size?
   F:  No, they are not the same size. Some are large, and some are small.
   第二个问题是:
   M: Do American university students study different subjects in the same building?
   F:  No, they study different subjects in different buildings on the campus.
   第三个问题是:
   M: What are some of the required courses in American universities?
   F:  English  and  math  are  usually  required.     A  history  and  a  science   course    are often required too.

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