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中级美国英语现在完成式(二)

所属教程:中级美国英语

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里我们继续学习现在完成式;     我们也要学习  ever,  e-v-e-r,  ever  跟never, n-e-v-e-r, never 以及 wish, w-i-s-h, wish的用法.现在我们来听今天这一课的会话,内容是说学校放寒假了, 珍妮离开学校以前在校园里遇见同学鲍勃;两个人谈话的经过.请你注意英文老师的发音和语调.

   F:  Where have you been?
   M: I have been over at the library. I have begun studying for the next semester.
   F:  The campus is quiet today.
   M: Yes, a lot of people have gone home. Do you have any plans?
   F:  I'm  going  home  to  see  my    parents.  I have  invited  a  friend  to come   with   me.  What about you?
   M: I'm not going anywhere.
   F:  Why not?
   M: I have decided to save my money for a trip to China next year.
   F:  China? That's really exciting. I wish I could go.

   现在我请英文老师再把整段对话用慢速度念一遍, 请你注意听.

   F:  Where have you been?
   M: I have been over at the library. I have begun studying for the next semester.
   F:  The campus is quiet today.
   M: Yes, a lot of people have gone home. Do you have any plans?
   F:  I'm  going  home  to  see  my    parents.  I have  invited  a  friend  to come   with   me. What  about you?
   M: I'm not going anywhere.
   F:  Why not?
   M: I have decided to save my money for a trip to China next year.
   F:  China? That's really exciting. I wish I could go.

   下面我请英文老师把对话里包含了今天要学的语法的句子用慢速度再念一遍.

   M: I have begun studying for the next semester.
   M: A lot of people have gone home.
   F:  I have invited a friend to come with me.
   M: I have decided to save my money for a trip to China next year.
   F:  I wish I could go.

二.现在完成式

   首先我们听老师念一些叙述大学生活的现在完成式句子.     这些句子都表示事情到目前为止已经发生.     有些句子用的是规则动词过去分词,   比方    finished, f-i-n-i-s-h-e-d, finished; 有些是不规则动词过去分词, 比方 "离开"  left, l-e-f-t, left,"去" gone, g-o-n-e, gone,  "开始"  begun, b-e-g-u-n, begun 等等. 现在请你注意听男老师念句子, 然后跟着女老师一起重复.

   M: The semester has finished.
   F:  The semester has finished.
   M: The semester break has started.
   F:  The semester break has started.
   M: Many students have left the campus.
   F:  Many students have left the campus.
   M: A lot of students have gone home.
   F:  A lot of students have gone home.
   M: Some professors and students have decided to take a vacation.
   F:  Some professors and students have decided to take a vacation.
   M: Some of them have made other plans.
   F:  Some of them have made other plans.
   M: Bob has begun studying for the next semester.
   F:  Bob has begun studying for the next semester.
   M: He has saved some money for a trip to China.
   F:  He has saved some money for a trip to China.
   M: Jenny has planned to go home.
   F:  Jenny has planned to go home.
   M: She has invited a friend to visit her family.
   F:  She has invited a friend to visit her family.

   下面我们来作代换练习.    这个练习里的句子都是说珍妮在寒假里已经作了的事情. 老师先念一个句子, 然后老师给你一个新词组,    请你代换到原来的句子里.  每作完一句老师会念出正确答案让你作个比较. 请你注意, 在你作练习的时候你必须把老师给你的原型动词改为过去分词.

   M: Jenny has done a lot of things.
   M: be home with her parents
   F:  Jenny has been home with her parents.
   M: see her old friends
   F:  Jenny has seen her old friends.
   M: meet some new friends
   F:  Jenny has met some new friends.
   M: go to many places with her sister,Linda
   F:  Jenny has gone to many places with her sister,Linda.
   M: spend some time with her brother,Peter
   F:  Jenny has spent some time with her brother,Peter.

   下面我们看一看鲍勃在寒假里已经作了什么事. 请你跟刚才一样作练习.

   M: Bob has stayed in the university.
   M: buy his Chinese textbook
   F:  Bob has bought his Chinese textbook.
   M: study Chinese
   F:  Bob has studied Chinese.
   M: write two reports
   F:  Bob has written two reports.
   M: take a job
   F:  Bob has taken a job.
   M: work in a restaurant
   F:  Bob has worked in a restaurant.

三.EVER

   刚才我们练习了一些现在完成式句子,    现在我们来学两个时常跟这类句子一起用的副词, 一个是 ever, 一个是 never. 如果把 ever    这个字用在现在完成式疑问句里就表示到目前为止是否已经作过某件事.  比方    "你吃过美国牛肉饼吗?"   这句话英文可以这样说: Have you ever eaten a hamburger?下面我们以代换练习的方式多练习这类句子. 练习的内容是说珍妮带了一个从中国到美国不久的同学到她家去玩.     珍妮的弟弟彼得很好奇, 于是问他对美国生活有多少了解, 比方吃过这个, 看过那个没有. 现在我们开始跟刚才一样作换字练习, 作完一句就请你听老师念正确答案

   M: Have you ever eaten a hamburger?
   M: have coffee
   F:  Have you ever had coffee?
   M: drive a car
   F:  Have you ever driven a car?
   M: hear an American song
   F:  Have you ever heard an American song?
   M: read an American novel
   F:  Have you ever read an American novel?

四.NEVER

   现在我们来作另外一组练习,    内容是说鲍勃带珍妮到大学附近一个广东馆子吃中国饭.  鲍勃是中国后裔美国人, 对中国文化有了解, 可是珍妮却没有接触过中国文化,所以鲍勃问珍妮许多问题,比方吃过广东菜没有? 用过筷子没有?喝过绿茶没有? 珍妮只好一一用 never 答覆说从来没有. 下面就是一个例子:

   M: Have you ever eaten Cantonese food?
   F:  No,I have never eaten Cantonese food.

   现在我们开始作练习,  请你注意听鲍勃问问题,    并且在珍妮回答问题的时候 一起回答.

   M: Have you ever eaten Cantonese food?
   F:  No, I have never eaten Cantonese food.
   M: Have you ever used chopsticks?
   F:  No, I have never used chopsticks.
   M: Have you ever had green tea?
   F:  No, I have never had green tea.
   M: Have you ever seen a Chinese painting?
   F:  No, I have never seen a Chinese painting.
   M: Have you ever heard a Chinese song?
   F:  No, I have never heard a Chinese song.
   M: Have you ever gone to a Chinese movie?
   F:  No, I have never gone to a Chinese movie.
   M: Have you ever read a book about China?
   F:  No, I have never read a book about China.

五.WISH

   现在我们来学习怎么用 wish, w-i-s-h, wish.这个字跟过去式从句一起用可以表示无法实现的愿望. 比方在今天这一课的对话里珍妮表示希望到中国去,可惜不能. 那句话英文是: I wish I could go to China.

   下面我们来练习这些句子,     请你注意听男老师念普通否定句,  然后请你改用 wish 把珍妮无法实现的愿望说出来. 每作完一句就请你听正确答案.

   M: I can't sing.
   F:  I wish I could sing.
   M: I can't use chopsticks.
   F:  I wish I could use chopsticks.
   M: I can't go to China.
   F:  I wish I could go to China.
   M: I don't know Chinese.
   F:  I wish I knew Chinese.
   M: I don't know Bob's parents.
   F:  I wish I knew Bob's parents.
   M: I don't have money to go to China.
   F:  I wish I had money to go to China.

   凡是句子的动词是 am, are 或是 is 的时候如果跟 wish 一起用, 那么就一律改成 were. w-e-r-e, were. 下面就是一些例子, 还是请你跟刚才一样练习.

   M: I am not rich.
   F:  I wish I were rich.
   M: I am not tall.
   F:  I wish I were tall.
   M: I am not strong.
   F:  I wish I were strong.
   M: She is not a professor.
   F:  She wishes she were a professor.
   M: She is not at home.
   F:  She wishes she were at home.

六.听短文回答问题

   现在我们来作听力测验. 首先还是请你听一段文章,内容是说大学秋季班结束了,  学生已经开始过寒假, 有的学生回家了, 有的学生到纽约或是旧金山去玩等等.请你特别注意听文章里的现在完成式句子.

   The  students  at  the university   have  finished   their  final  exams.  The  fall   semester has ended  and  the  students  have  begun  their    semester  break.  They  have three weeks to relax before the spring semester begins. The first weekend the weather has been good. It has been warm and it hasn't rained. Most students  have  left  the  university  for  a   vacation.  Some have gone to famous places like New  York  or  San  Francisco  to  see    the  sights.  Others  have  gone  to   the   beaches  in California and Florida.  Many students' home are not near the university.  They have taken this chance to visit their families  at  home.  Jenny  has  invited  a    friend  to  come  to  her  home  to meet her family. She has also spent some time with her old  friends from high school.

   等一会儿我会请英文老师把整段文章再念一遍.    现在请你注意听今天要测验的三个问题.

   第一个问题是:
   M: How long is the break between the semesters?
   第二个问题是:
   M: What have students done during the semester break?
   第三个问题是:
   M: How did Jenny spend her vacation?

   现在我们来听英文老师用慢速度把整段文章再念一遍.

   The  students  at  the university   have  finished   their  final  exams.  The  fall   semester has  ended  and  the  students  have  begun  their    semester  break.  They  have three weeks to relax before the spring semester begins. The first weekend the weather has been good. It has been warm and it hasn't rained. Most students  have  left  the  university  for  a    vacation.  Some have gone to famous places like New  York  or  San  Francisco  to  see    the  sights.    Others  have  gone  to   the   beaches  in California and Florida. Many students' home are not near the university.  They have taken this chance to visit their families  at  home.  Jenny  has  invited  a    friend  to  come  to  her  home  to meet her family. She has also spent some time with her old  friends from high school.

   好,  现在请你回答今天测验的三个问题.   回答之后请你跟正确答案比较一下看答对了没有. 现在开始.

   第一个问题是:
   M: How long is the break between the semesters?
   F:  It is three weeks.
   第二个问题是:
   M: What have students done during the semester break?
   F:  Some of them have gone home. Some of them have gone to famous places to see the
   sights, Some of them have gone to the beaches.
   第三个问题是:
   M: How did Jenny spend her vacation?
   F:  She has invited a friend to her home. She has seen her parents and visited old friends.

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