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中级美国英语直接宾语和间接宾语

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里, 我们先复习现在完成式, 然后练习直接宾语和间接宾语. 首先我们还是听一段对话,   内容是说亨利跟凯特谈到供大女儿珍妮上大学的事情. 请你注意听两位英文老师的发音和语调.

   F:  Henry, we owe the university 400 dollars for Jenny's tuition.
   M: We have paid them, haven't we?
   F:  We paid them for the last semester. They sent us a bill for the new semester.
   M: Luckily there are only two semesters a year.
   F:  Well, there's the summer session.
   M: Does Jenny plan to go to summer school?
   F:  No, she wants to work and save some money in the summer.
   M: That's good. Maybe she can help and pay the university some of her tuition next year.

   现在我们再把整段对话听一遍, 请你注意听.

   F:  Henry, we owe the university 400 dollars for Jenny's tuition.
   M: We have paid them, haven't we?
   F:  We paid them for the last semester. They sent us a bill for the new semester.
   M: Luckily there are only two semesters a year.
   F:  Well, there's the summer session.
   M: Does Jenny plan to go to summer school?
   F:  No, she wants to work and save some money in the summer.
   M: That's good. Maybe she can help and pay the university some of her tuition next year.

   刚才那段对话里有些句子包含了直接和间接宾语,   现在我们再把这些句子听一遍.

   F:  We owe the university 400 dollars for Jenny's tuition.
   F:  They sent us a bill for the new semester.
   M: Maybe she can help and pay the university some of her tuition next year.

二.现在完成式和过去式

   听完了对话现在我们来作练习. 首先我们来复习现在完成式. 以前我们学过现在完成式是用来表示到目前已经发生的事情而过去式表示在过去一个特定的 时间所发生的事情. 下面我请英文老师念一些句子比较这两种时态. 男老师念 现在完成式句子, 女老师念过去式句子, 请你注意听.

   M: Henry and Kate have paid the tuition.
   F:  They paid it last month.
   M: Henry has written a letter.
   F:  Henry wrote it last night.
   M: Kate has taken the car to the garage.
   F:  She took it last week.

   下面我们来练习这两种时态. 首先老师提出现在完成式问句, 然后老师给你念一个时间词组, 请你用过去式跟这个时间词组作肯定的答覆. 下面就是一个例子:    

   M: Have Henry and Kate paid the telephone bill?
   M: last week
   F:  They paid it last week.

   现在我们开始作练习. 练习里的句子都跟一般家务事有关系, 比方 "付电话费" pay the telephone bill,  "贷款"  get a loan,   "报税"  do the income tax,   "洗衣服"do the laundry  等等. 每作完一句就请你听老师念正确答案. 

   M: Have Henry and Kate paid the telephone bill?
   M: last week
   F:  Yes, they paid it last week.
   M: Has Henry gotten a loan?
   M: this spring
   F:  Yes, he got it this spring.
   M: Has Henry done his income tax?
   M: this April
   F:  Yes, he did it this April.
   M: Has Kate taken the car to the garage?
   M: several days ago
   F:  Yes, she took it several days ago.
   M: Has Kate bought the groceries?
   M: a few hours ago
   F:  Yes, she bought them a few hours ago.
   M: Has Kate done the laundry?
   M: the day before yesterday
   F:  Yes, she did it the day before yesterday.

三.直接宾语和间接宾语

   刚才那个练习你都作对了吗?现在我们来学直接宾语和间接宾语的用法. 在英文里有些及物动词, 比方  "教"  teach, "给" give, "写" write 等等, 可以有两个宾语. 比方有一句话: "凯特教琳达英文." Kate teaches Linda English.  在这句话里"琳达" 是间接宾语, "英文" 是直接宾语. 另外有一句话:  "昨天亨利给珍妮写了 一封信."  Henry wrote Jenny  a letter yesterday.在这句话里 "珍妮" 是间接宾语,"一封信" 是直接宾语.

   下面我请两位英文老师念一些包含了这两种宾语的现在完成式句子,    内容是说亨利和凯特分别为儿女作些了什么事情.    在这些句子里指东西的都是直接宾语, 指人的都是间接宾语. 每个句子我们念两遍, 请你听一遍, 跟着老师重复一遍.

   M: Henry has written Jenny a letter.
   F:  Henry has written Jenny a letter.
   M: Kate has sent Jenny a package.
   F:  Kate has sent Jenny a package.
   M: Henry has given Peter some money.
   F:  Henry has given Peter some money.
   M: Kate has shown Peter a book.
   F:  Kate has shown Peter a book.
   M: Henry has bought Linda a swimming suit.
   F:  Henry has bought Linda a swimming suit.
   M: Kate has taught Linda an English lesson.
   F:  Kate has taught Linda an English lesson.

   刚才我们用直接宾语和间接宾语练习了一些句子,   内容说到亨利和凯特为他 们的儿女作了些什么事情. 现在我们继续练习, 可是方式不同.  这次由老师用 " 什么"   what     提出包含了间接宾语的现在完成式疑问句,  比方:    What have Henry and Kate paid the university?接着老师念出一个直接宾语, 比方: Jenny's tuition, 学生就用间接和直接宾语回答问题, 所以答案就是: They have paid the university Jenny's tuition. 好, 现在请你注意听老师问问题; 这些问题都是说到珍妮因为上大学搬到学校附近,   亨利和凯特担心女儿第一次在外边住可能觉得孤单, 所以给她买了无线电, 又怕没人给她缝衣服, 所以给她买了缝纫机,凯特又把汽车借给她, 亨利拿出地图来, 告诉她应该走哪条路等等.

   M: What have Henry and Kate paid the university?
   M: Jenny's tuition
   F:  They have paid the university Jenny's tuition.
   M: What have they bought Jenny?
   M: a radio
   F:  They have bought Jenny a radio.
   M: What have they gotten Jenny?
   M: a sewing machine
   F:  They have gotten Jenny a sewing machine.
   M: What has Kate taught Jenny?
   M: sewing
   F:  She has taught Jenny sewing.
   M: What has Kate lent Jenny?
   M: her car
   F:  She has lent Jenny her car.
   M: What has Henry shown Jenny?
   M: a map
   F:  He has shown Jenny a map.
   M: What has Henry given Jenny?
   M: some advice
   F:  He has given Jenny some advice.

   刚才那个练习你都会作吗? 下面我们来学习另外一种用直接和间接宾语的方法. 首先请你听一个句子: Henry  has written a letter to Jenny. 这句话跟我们刚才练习的说法, 也就是: Henry  has  written Jenny a letter.   意思一样, 只不过把 间接宾语和直接宾语的顺序对调, 而且在间接宾语的前头加上介词 to, t-o, to.现在我们要作的练习就是把这两种说法作个比较.   请你注意听老师念我们刚才练习过的那种陈述句, 然后请你用上介词 to 把意思用另外一种说法表达出来. 首先举个例子.

   M: Kate has taught Jenny sewing.
   F: She has taught sewing to Jenny.

   现在我们开始练习, 每作完一句就请你听正确答案.

   M: Kate has taught Jenny sewing.
   F:  She has taught sewing to Jenny.
   M: Kate has lent Jenny her car.
   F:  She has lent her car to Jenny.
   M: Kate has mailed Jenny a package.
   F:  She has mailed a package to Jenny.
   M: Henry has shown Jenny a map.
   F:  He has shown a map to Jenny.
   M: Henry has given Jenny some advice.
   F:  He has given some advice to Jenny.
   M: Henry has written Jenny a letter.
   F:  He has written a letter to Jenny.

   在刚才那个练习里我们学习了直接宾语加上 to 再加上间接宾语的说法. 可是有些及物动词不应该跟 to 一起用,   而必须用另外一个介词 for, f-o-r,  for.  最普通的两个例子就是 buy, b-u-y, buy  跟 get, g-e-t, get. 现在老师用这两个动词作几个句子说明亨利跟凯特买了些什么东西给珍妮.请你跟刚才一样作练习, 不过要记得改用介词 for. 现在我们开始.

   M: Henry and Kate Have bought Jenny a radio.
   F:  They have bought a radio for Jenny.
   M: They have bought Jenny a dictionary.
   F:  They have bought a dictionary for Jenny.
   M: They have gotten Jenny a sewing machine.
   F:  They have gotten a sewing machine for Jenny.
   M: They have gotten Jenny a desk.
   F:  They have gotten a desk for Jenny.

   用上介词的说法你都会了吗? 这种说法很常用,尤其是直接宾语是代名词的时候就非用这种说法不可, 比方: Henry has given it to Peter.    在下面一组练习里, 老师提出一些问句, 内容都是说到亨利和凯特为孩子们作的事情, 然后学生把句子里的主语跟直接宾语改为代名词, 再用上适当的介词作肯定的答覆. 在学生作练习的时候请你也一起作.

   M: Has Henry given Peter some money?
   F:  Yes, he has given it to Peter.
   M: Has Kate shown Peter a new book?
   F:  Yes, she has shown it to Peter.
   M: Has Henry bought Linda a swimming suit?
   F:  Yes, he has bought it for Linda.
   M: Has Kate taught Linda an English lesson?
   F:  Yes, she has taught it to Linda.
   M: Have Henry and Kate gotten Jenny a sewing machine?
   F:  Yes, they have gotten it for Jenny.
   M: Have Henry and Kate mailed Jenny a package?
   F:  Yes, they have mailed it to Jenny.

四.听短文回答问题

   今天我们要听的文章内容是说美国家庭怎么样应付孩子们的大学教育费,住宿费等等问题, 比方孩子小的时候他们就开始存钱,   孩子大了以后可以自己找份工作挣学费, 或是先向政府借贷等等. 现在请你注意听.

   Nearly all American students in colleges and universities  pay  for   their educations. There are  many  costs.  First  of  all,  there   is  tuition.  At some schools, the tuition is very high, ten  thousand dollars a  year or more. At other schools, it  may only be a few hundred dollars a year.  At some community colleges, tuition is free. There  are other  costs as  well. Many students leave their homes to go to schools in other cities.  They  may  live  in  dormitories  or   apartments,  and  they  must  pay  for  it.   Finally, students must buy textbooks for their courses.  Going to college or university can be a  big expense.  Some  families  start  saving  money  for   their  children's  education  when  the  children are  small.  Many  students  work  to  save  money   for  tuition. They can also get loans from the government. They pay the money back to the government when they finish their education.

   现在我们先来听今天测验的三个问题, 然后我会再请老师把整段文章念一遍.

   第一个问题是:
   M: What do American students pay for?
   第二个问题是:
   M: Is the tuition the same at all American colleges and universities?
   第三个问题是:
   M: How do Americans pay for college education?

   现在我们再来听英文老师用慢速度把整段文章念一遍. 

   Nearly all American students in colleges and universities  pay  for   their educations. There are  many  costs.  First  of  all,  there   is  tuition.  At some schools, the tuition is very high, ten  thousand dollars a  year or more. At other schools, it  may only be a few hundred dollars a year.  At some community colleges, tuition is free. There  are other  costs as  well. Many students leave their homes to go to schools in other cities.  They  may  live  in  dormitories  or   apartments,  and  they  must  pay  for  it.   Finally, students must buy textbooks for their courses.  Going to college or university can be a  big expense.  Some  families  start  saving  money  for   their  children's  education  when  the  children are  small.  Many  students  work  to  save  money   for  tuition. They can also get loans from the government. They pay the money back to the government when they finish their education.  

   现在请你回答今天测验的三个问题. 回答之后请你听老师念正确答案.

   第一个问题是:
   M: What do American students pay for?
   F:  They pay tuition and they buy textbooks for their  courses. When they live
   in dormitories or apartments they must pay for it as well.
   第二个问题是:
   M: Is the tuition the same at all American colleges and universities?
   F:  No, it is not the same. It may be ten thousand dollars a year or only a few
   hundred dollars a year. At some schools tuition is free.
   第三个问题是:
   M: How do Americans pay for college education?
   F:  American families save money for their children's education. Many students work to save money. They can also get loans   from the government.

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