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中级美国英语some和any的用法

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里, 我们学习怎么用 some, s-o-m-e, some 跟 any, a-n-y, any的用法.
首先我们还是听一段对话,内容是说彼得暑假里跟着学校旅行团到纽约去玩,回来之后把他在纽约拍的照片给他的朋友玛丽看, 两个人谈话的经过.   请你注意英文老师的发音和语调.

   M: Mary, have I shown you my pictures?
   F:  No, you haven't.  Are these your pictures of New York?
   M: Yes, they are. I took them last month.
   F:  Did you take any pictures of the skyscrapers there?
   M: Yes, I took some. Here they are.
   F:  You took wonderful pictures! Did you have a good time in New York?
   M: Yes, I did. Have you ever been there?
   F:  No, I haven't. I've never been anywhere!
   M: Don't you want to visit New York sometime?
   F:  Yes, I do. I'll go there someday.

   现在我们再听英文老师用慢速度把整段对话念一遍.

   M: Mary, have I shown you my pictures?
   F:  No, you haven't.  Are these your pictures of New York?
   M: Yes, they are. I took them last month.
   F:  Did you take any pictures of the skyscrapers there?
   M: Yes, I took some. Here they are.
   F:  You took wonderful pictures! Did you have a good time in New York?
   M: Yes, I did. Have you ever been there?
   F:  No, I haven't. I've never been anywhere!
   M: Don't you want to visit New York sometime?
   F:  Yes, I do. I'll go there someday.

   在刚才那段对话里,    有些句子包含了我们今天要学的语法,    现在我请英文 师把那些句子念出来, 请你注意听.

   F:  Did you take any pictures of the skyscrapers there?
   M: Yes, I took some.
   F:  I've never been anywhere!
   M: Don't you want to visit New York sometime?
   F:  I'll go there someday.

二.SOME

   首先学习 some, s-o-m-e, some 的用法. 这个字可以用来表示 "一些", 在下面这组练习里玛丽提出有关彼得在纽约的活动的问题,     比方  "他买了一些纪念品吗?"  Did he buy some souvenirs?   "他寄了一些明信片吗?"    Did he send some postcards?   "他去戏剧中心百老汇看了一些表演吗?"     Did he see some showson Broadway?  等等. 这些问题请你一一用 some 和复数名词作肯定的答覆. 每答完一句就请你听老师念正确答案.

   F:  Did he take some pictures?
   M: Yes, he took some pictures.
   F:  Did he buy some souvenirs?
   M: Yes, he bought some souvenirs.
   F:  Did he send some postcards?
   M: Yes, he sent some postcards.
   F:  Did he see some shows on Broadway?
   M: Yes, he saw some shows on Broadway.

三.SOME 短句

   刚才那个练习你都会作吗? 现在我们再来学另外一个用法. some 也可以跟一些别的字一起用,   来表示   "某一个",     "某一些",   比方   "某个人"    somebody, s-o-m-e-b-o-d-y, somebody, "某些东西" 或是 "某些事情" something, s-o-m-e-t-h- i-n-g, something, "某个地方" somewhere, s-o-m-e-w-h-e-r-e, somewhere, 等等.在下面一组练习里老师提出一些有关到纽约旅行的问题,比方 "谁带彼得去看表演了?"  Who took Peter to see the shows?  接着老师说 somebody, 请你用老师给你的字来回答问题,  所以正确答案就是:     Somebody took Peter to see the shows. 现在我们开始作练习, 每作完一句就请你听正确答案.

   M: Who took Peter to see the shows?
   M: somebody
   F:  Somebody took Peter to see the shows.
   M: Who gave Peter some information about New York?
   M: somebody
   F:  Somebody gave Peter some information about New York.
   M: What did Peter tell Mary about New York?
   M: something
   F:  Peter told Mary something about New York.
   M: What did Peter bring back from New York?
   M: something
   F:  Peter brought back something from New York.
   M: When will Peter go to New York again?
   M: someday
   F:  Peter will go to New York again someday.
   M: When will Mary visit New York?
   M: someday
   F:  Mary will visit New York someday.

四.ANY

   刚才我们学习了some 的一些用法, 现在我们来学习  any, a-n-y, any. 这个字表示"任何".在下面一组练习里玛丽用  any    问彼得一些他在纽约的活动的问题, 比方 "你在纽约有没有跟任何外国人说话呢? "   Did    you talk  to any  foreigners in New York? 或者" 你在动物园有没有看见任何熊猫呢? "Did     you  see  any  pandas in  the zoo?  这些问题彼得都一一的作否定的答覆. 现在请你注意听玛丽问问题, 并且跟彼得一起回答问题.   请注意在这些句子里用的是复数名词.

   F:  Did you talk to any foreigners in New York?
   M: No, I didn't talk to any foreigners in New York.
   F:  Did you see any pandas in the zoo?
   M: No, I didn't see any pandas in the zoo.
   F:  Did you eat in any Chinese restaurants in New York?
   M: No, I didn't eat in any Chinese restaurants in New York.
   F:  Did you buy any expensive souvenirs in New York?
   M: No, I didn't buy any expensive souvenirs in New York.

   下面我们把 some 跟 any 作个比较. 这两个字因为意思不同, 所以  some 常常出现在肯定句里, 而 any 常常出现在否定句里.    在下面一组练习里, 老师用慢速度念一些句子比较这两个字的用法.    这些句子还是跟彼得到纽约去玩有关系.  每个句子我们念两遍, 请你听一遍,    跟着重复一遍.  在你重复的时候要特别注意 some 跟 any 的区别.

   M: Peter ate  in some  good  restaurants   in  New   York,  but  he  didn't  eat  in any  Chinese restaurants.
   F:  Peter ate  in some  good  restaurants  in    New  York,  but  he  didn't  eat  in any    Chinese restaurants.
   M: Peter saw some foreigners in New York, but he didn't talk to any of them.
   F:  Peter saw some foreigners in New York, but he didn't talk to any of them.
   M: Peter bought some souvenirs in New York, but he didn't buy any expensive ones.
   F:  Peter bought some souvenirs in New York, but he didn't buy any expensive ones.
   M: Peter went to some zoos in New York, but he didn't see any pandas there.
   F:  Peter went to some zoos in New York, but he didn't see any pandas there.

   练习了刚才那些句子我希望你对some 和 any 两者的分别有了一些认识. any 也可以跟别的字一起用, 比方 "任何人" anybody, a-n-y-b-o-d-y, anybody, "任何 事情" 或 "任何东西"  anything,    a-n-y-t-h-i-n-g,  anything, "任何地方" anywhere, a-n-y-w-h-e-r-e, anywhere 等等.  现在我们来作一组练习, 由玛丽问彼得一些有关他在纽约的问题,比方他在地铁上有没有跟某个人交谈, 在中国城有没有买某些东西等等. 这些问题彼得都一一的用我们刚才提到 anybody  跟 anything作否定的答覆.  请你注意听玛丽问问题, 并且跟彼得一起回答.

   F:  Did you talk to somebody on the subway?
   M: No, I didn't talk to anybody on the subway.
   F:  Did you buy something in Chinatown?
   M: No, I didn't buy anything in Chinatown.
   F:  Did you get something for your parents?
   M: No, I didn't get anything for my parents.
   F:  Did you visit somebody in New York?
   M: No, I didn't visit anybody in New York.

五.ANYWHERE 和 SOMEWHERE

   在下面一组练习里,  我们来比较  somewhere  跟 anywhere  的用法. 首先由老师提出一个陈述句, 接着老师提出问句,请你根据陈述句来决定用somewhere或是 anywhere  回答问题. 每回答一句就请你听正确答案.

   M: Peter lost his hat in New York.
   M: Where did he leave it?
   F:  He left it somewhere.
   M: Where did he find it?
   F:  He didn't find it anywhere.

   下面老师又提出一个陈述句. 请你还是跟刚才一样练习.

   M: Peter went travelling, but Mary stayed home.
   M: Where did Peter go?
   F:  He went somewhere.
   M: Where did Mary go?
   F:  She didn't go anywhere.

六.ANYWHERE 短语用在肯定句

   刚才我们学习的 any, anybody, anything,  跟 anywhere    都出现在否定句里,  但是这些字也可以用在肯定句里:下面英文老师用慢速度念几个例子,  内容都是说到纽约,     比方纽约地铁很方便, 你可以坐地铁到任何地方; 纽约的摩天大楼比美国任何地方都多,  纽约饭店和铺子很多, 要买什么, 要吃什么应有尽有等等. 每个句子老师念两遍,请你 听一遍, 跟着重复一遍.

   M: Anybody can take the subway in New York.
   F:  Anybody can take the subway in New York.
   M: The subway is very convenient. You can go anywhere on it.
   F:  The subway is very convenient. You can go anywhere on it.
   M: Anybody can visit the skyscrapers in New York.
   F:  Anybody can visit the skyscrapers in New York.
   M: There are more skyscrapers in New York than anywhere in the United States.
   F:  There are more skyscrapers in New York than anywhere in the United States.
   M: There are a lot of restaurants in New York. You can eat anything.
   F:  There are a lot of restaurants in New York. You can eat anything.
   M: There are a lot of stores in New York. You can buy anything.
   F : There are a lot of stores in New York. You can buy anything.

七.听短文回答问题

   今天我们要听的文章是介绍纽约,谈到纽约是美国的商业和文化中心, 纽约除 了有闻名世界的帝国大厦,  联合国, 自由女神像,大都会博物馆以外,还有吸引了成千上万观众的戏剧中心  "百老汇"    跟孩子们最喜欢的布朗克思动物园.现在请你注意听, 等一会儿我们要根据这段文章问你几个问题.

   To many people, New York is the United States. It is the commercial and cultural center of the  country.   A  lot  of people  have    seen  pictures  of  its  skyscrapers.   There    are  more skyscrapers in New York than anywhere in the United States. The Empire State Building is well-known throughout  the world. The  city's  theatre  district,  Broadway,  is very    famous as  well.  Thousands of people go there  to  see  the  shows.  There  are    different  plays  and  musicals.  One can always find something interesting to see.  Every summer, high school students all over  the United States tour New York.   They  can take  the  bus  or  subway  to  visit    famous sites such as  the  Unite  Nations,  the   Statue   of  Liberty,  the  Metropolitan  Museum  and  the    Bronx  Zoo.  The  bus  and  subway  are very convenient. One can go almost anywhere on them.

   刚才那段文章你都听懂了吗? 要是没有全懂不要紧, 等一会儿还有机会听. 现在我请英文老师先把今天测验的三个问题念一遍给你听.

   第一个问题是:
   M: How important is New York to the United States?
   第二个问题是:
   M: Are there a lot of skyscrapers in New York?
   第三个问题是:
   M: What are some of the famous sites in New York?

   现在我们再听英文老师用慢速度把整段文章念一遍.

   To many people, New York is the United States. It is the commercial and cultural center of the  country.   A  lot  of people  have    seen  pictures  of  its  skyscrapers.   There    are  more skyscrapers in New York than anywhere in the United States. The Empire State Building is well-known throughout  the world. The  city's  theatre  district,  Broadway,  is very    famous as  well.  Thousands of people go there  to  see  the  shows.  There  are    different  plays  and  musicals.  One can always find something interesting to see.  Every summer, high school students all over  the United States tour New York.   They  can take  the  bus  or  subway  to  visit    famous sites such as  the  Unite  Nations,  the   Statue   of  Liberty,  the  Metropolitan  Museum  and  the    Bronx  Zoo.  The  bus  and  subway  are very convenient. One can go almost anywhere on them.

   现在请你回答下面三个问题. 回答之后请你听老师念正确答案.

   第一个问题是:
   M: How important is New York to the United States?
   F:  New York is the commercial and cultural center of the  United States.
   第二个问题是:
   M: Are there a lot of skyscrapers in New York?
   F:  Yes, there are more skyscrapers in New York than anywhere in the United States.
   第三个问题是:
   M: What are some of the famous sites in New York?
   F:  The Empire State  Building, Broadway, the  United Nations,    the  Metropolitan  Museum and the Bronx Zoo are some of the famous sites in New York.

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