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中级美国英语where和 when引导的定语从句

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里,   我们学习用  where, w-h-e-r-e, where, whom, w-h-o-m, whom 和 , w-h-e-n, when 作短句. 这些短句在句子里分别说明地点, 人物和时间.现在我们来听彼得和玛丽两人之间的一段对话.这段对话包含了我刚才提到的三种短句的用法. 请你注意听两位英文老师的发音和语调.

   F:  Are you going anywhere on vacation this summer?
   M: Yes, we're  going  back  to  a  national  park  in  California  where  we  went  camping   last  summer.
   F:  How nice! We're going to California too.
   M: Are you going to the resort where you used to go on vacation?
   F:  Yes, and we're going to visit people whom we met there before.
   M: When are you coming back?
   F:  I don't know the exact date; but I'll call you on the day  when I get  home.

   现在我请英文老师用慢速度再把整段对话念一遍.

   F:  Are you going anywhere on vacation this summer?
   M: Yes,   we're  going  back  to  a  national  park  in   California  where  we  went camping   last  summer.
   F:  How nice! We're going to California too.
   M: Are you going to the resort where you used to go on vacation?
   F:  Yes, and we're going to visit people whom we met there before.
   M: When are you coming back?
   F:  I don't know the exact date; but I'll call you on the day  when I get  home.

   下面英文老师再把对话里包含了我们今天要学的语法的句子挑出来念给你听.

   M: We're going back to a national park in California where we went camping last summer.
   M: Are you going to the resort where you used to go on vacation?
   F:  We're going to visit people whom we met there before.
   F:  I'll call you on the day when I get home.

二.WHERE

   听了上面的句子你可能已经注意到说明地点,    人物和时间的短句都出现在它们所修饰的词后面. 比方有一句话: " 彼得要到一个风景区去 ", 这句话英文可以这样说: Peter is going to a scenic area.    可是这究竟是一个什么样的风景区呢?  为了加以说明, 我们可以用一个以 where, w-h-e-r-e, where  开头的短句加以修饰, 比方: "他可以搭帐篷的风景区"  a scenic area where he can set up his tent   所以整句话就是:  Peter  is going to a scenic area  where he can set up his tent.

   现在我们来作一组代换练习. 老师先说: a national park where he can relax, "一个他可以去调剂身心的国家公园 ", 接着老师说:     "找到许多植物"   find many plants, 学生就把老师提出的字或词代换到短句里念出来,答案就是:a national park where he can find many plants.  现在我们开始作练习. 学生作的时候请你也一起作.

   M: a national park where he can relax
   M: go camping
   F:  a national park where he can go camping
   M: set up his tent
   F:  a national park where he can set up his tent
   M: go fishing
   F:  a national park where he can go fishing
   M: go hiking
   F:  a national park where he can go hiking
   M: go swimming
   F:  a national park where he can go swimming
   M: find many plants
   F:  a national park where he can find many plants

   刚才那组练习里的短句都是用来说明彼得所向往的国家公园. 下面一组练习是说彼得要去的地方,比方 "一个他可以用电的露营区" A camping area where he can have electricity, "一个他可以钓鱼的湖"  a lake where  he can go fishing 等等.我们还是以代换方式作这组练习,每作完一句就请你听老师念正确答案

   M: Peter is going to a national park where he can go camping.
   M: a scenic area where he can set up his tent
   F:  Peter is going to a scenic area where he can set up his tent.
   M: a camping area where he can have electricity
   F:  Peter is going to a camping area where he can have electricity.
   M: a lake where he can go fishing
   F:  Peter is going to a lake where he can go fishing.
   M: a forest where he can find many plants
   F:  Peter is going to a forest where he can find many plants.
   M: a mountain where he can go hiking
   F:  Peter is going to a mountain where he can go hiking.
   M: a place where he can relax
   F:  Peter is going to a place where he can relax.

三.WHOM

   下面我们来练习用 whom, w-h-o-m, whom 作修饰人物的短句. 另外有一个疑问词  who,  w-h-o, who 也可以用来作短句修饰人物. 这两个字意思相同但是用法不同. 简单地说  who,  w-h-o,  who  代表主语,     比方认识玛丽的人   who  knows Mary. 喜欢玛丽的人 who likes Mary 等等;  而  whom, w-h-o-m, whom 代表宾语,比方玛丽认识的人whom Mary knows, 玛丽喜欢的人 whom Mary likes 等等. 目前在一般谈话里代表宾语的  whom 已经慢慢被淘汰,    但是在文章或是演讲里仍然还用这个字.

   下面我们来作代换练习, 学学用 whom 开头的短句形容玛丽的朋友, 比方她去年看到的朋友;  跟她一起旅行的朋友; 跟她交谈的朋友等等. 在学生作练习的时候请你也一起作

   M: friends whom Mary met last year
   M: saw last summer
   F:  friends whom Mary saw last summer
   M: likes very much
   F:  friends whom Mary likes very much
   M: travelled with
   F:  friends whom Mary travelled with
   M: chatted with
   F:  friends whom Mary chatted with
   M: knew many years ago
   F:  friends whom Mary knew many years ago

   下面一组练习是由老师问你一个问题,  比方 "玛丽要去探望谁? " who is Mary going to visit?   接着老师说:   "她去年看到的朋友"    friends whom she saw last year, 所以答案就是: Mary is going to visit  friends whom she saw    last year.  这组练习的内容都是说到玛丽在商业旅游区的各种活动. 现在我们开始作练习.

   M: Who is Mary going to visit?
   M: friends whom she saw last year
   F:  Mary is going to visit friends whom she saw last year.
   M: Who is Mary going to have dinner with?
   M: people whom she met last summer
   F:  Mary is going to have dinner with people whom she met last summer.
   M: Who is Mary going fishing with?
   M: a friend whom she likes very much
   F:  Mary is going fishing with a friend whom she likes very much.
   M: Who is Mary going hiking with?
   M: someone whom she has known for a long time
   F:  Mary is going hiking with someone whom she has known for a long time.
   M: who is Mary going to play tennis with?
   M: someone whom she travels with
   F:  Mary is going to play tennis with someone whom she travels with.

   现在我们再来学习用 whom 作短句.下面一组练习是由老师念两个句子, 比方:"玛丽跟人们交谈"  Mary chatted with people.  跟     "她去年认识他们"   She met them last year. 请你把第二句话改成用 whom 开头的短句,    用来修饰第一句话里的 "人们" , 所以答案就是: 玛丽跟她去年认识的人们交谈. Mary chatted with people whom she met last year.这组练习的内容也都是有关玛丽在商业旅游区的活动. 现在我们开始作练习, 每作完一句还是请你听正确答案.

   M: Mary chatted with people.
   M: She met them last year.
   F:  Mary chatted with people whom she met last year.
   M: Mary took pictures of her friends.
   M: She travelled with them.
   F:  Mary took pictures of her friends whom she travelled with.
   M: Mary played volleyball with her friends.
   M: She visited them.
   F:  Mary played volleyball with her friends whom she visited.
   M: Mary went biking with someone.
   M: She liked him very much.
   F:  Mary went biking with someone whom she liked very much.
   M: Mary went for a drive with someone.
   M: She knew her.
   F:  Mary went for a drive with someone whom she knew.

四.WHEN

   下面我们来学习用 when, w-h-e-n, when 开头可以说明时间的短句.第一组练习是说彼得和父母到国家公园去露营, 第一个星期就碰上暴风雨, 帐篷被吹走了, 不得不住进父母的旅行拖车里. 下面男老师把彼得这次不愉快的经验一句一句的念出来, 每个句子都有说明时间的短句, 请你听了之后跟着女老师把句子重复一遍.

   M: During  the  month  when  we  went  camping   in  the  national  park, we  had  a  terrible experience.
   F:  During  the  month  when  we  went    camping  in  the  national  park,   we   had   a  terrible experience.
   M: It happened on the day when I set up my tent.
   F:  It happened on the day when I set up my tent.
   M: In the afternoon when we got back from fishing, it became windy.
   F:  In the afternoon when we got back from fishing, it became windy.
   M: During  the  night  when  it  started  to    rain  heavily,  I got out of my tent and went  into my parents' trailer.
   F:  During  the  night  when  it  started    to  rain  heavily,  I got out of my tent and went  into my parents' trailer.
   M: The next morning when I got up, I found that my tent was gone.
   F:  The next morning when I got up, I found that my tent was gone.

   在刚才那组练习里有一个字是 trailer, t-r-a-i-l-e-r, trailer,   这个字指的是美国人露营的时候常常用的拖车.    这种拖车就好象是带了轮子的房子,  里头有水电还分几间屋子. 有的拖车本身就是一辆汽车, 有的必须用一般汽车拖着. 这个字等一会儿在听力测验里还会出现. 下面老师要根据刚才那组练习提出一些问题. 请学生作肯定的答覆. 在学生回答问题的时候请你也一起回答.

   M: Did Peter have a terrible experience during the month when he went camping?
   F:  Yes,  he had a terrible experience during the month when he went camping.
   M: Did it happen on the day when he set up his tent?
   F:  Yes, it happened on the day when he set up his tent.
   M: Did  it  become  windy  in the afternoon  when he got  back from fishing?
   F:  Yes, it became windy in the afternoon when he got back from fishing.
   M: Did he get into his parents' trailer during the night when it started to rain heavily?
   F:  Yes, he got into his parents' trailer during the night when it started to rain heavily.
   M: Did he find that his tent was gone the next morning when he got up?
   F:  Yes, he found that his tent was gone the next morning when he got up.

五.听短文回答问题

   今天我们要听的文章是说到美国人夏天里喜欢到国家公园去露营, 他们到那儿可以呼吸新鲜空气,可以享受湖光山色. 陶冶身心, 有的人开着旅行拖车去,有的人是在营区搭帐篷等等.现在请你注意听.

   One  kind of  vacation  that  many   Americans   enjoy  is  camping.  Each summer millions of Americans  drive  to  the countryside  where they    find  places to camp.  The national parks, many of which are in the mountains, are favorite camping places.    Campers enjoy the fresh air, the lakes and the forests which they find in these parks.     Campers  hike, swim  and  fish. They can also find many kinds of  animals and plants in the parks.  Mostly,  campers relax. They enjoy a change  from  their  busy  lives  in    the  city. Some campers have  trailers  which  they drive or pull behind their cars to their  camp sites. Trailers are like houses on wheels.  They have many conveniences which people have in their  homes,  such  as  electricity  and  hot    water.   But  most  campers  don't  have  trailers. They  camp in tents which they set up in their camp  sites.    Campers in tents don't  have the conveniences that campers in trailers have.  Tent campers enjoy a very simple life.

   刚才那篇文章你听懂了多少? 如果没有全部听懂没有关系, 等一会儿还有机会听. 现在我请老师先把今天测验的问题念给你听.

   第一个问题是:
   M: What do campers find in the national parks?
   第二个问题是:
   M: Why do people enjoy camping?
   第三个问题是:
   M: What conveniences do campers in trailers have?

   下面我们再来听英文老师用慢速度把整篇文章念一遍.

   One  kind of  vacation  that  many   Americans   enjoy  is  camping.  Each summer millions of Americans  drive  to  the countryside  where they    find  places to camp.  The national parks, many of which are in the mountains, are favorite camping places.    Campers enjoy the fresh air, the lakes and the forests which they find in these parks.     Campers  hike, swim  and  fish. They can also find many kinds of  animals and plants in the parks.  Mostly,  campers relax. They enjoy a change  from  their  busy  lives  in    the  city. Some campers have  trailers  which  they drive or pull behind their cars to their  camp sites. Trailers are like houses on wheels.  They have many conveniences which people have in their  homes,  such  as  electricity  and  hot    water.   But  most  campers  don't  have  trailers. They  camp in tents which they set up in their camp  sites.    Campers in tents don't  have the conveniences that campers in trailers have.  Tent campers enjoy a very simple life.

   现在请你回答下面三个问题. 每回答一句就请你听正确答案.

   第一个问题是:
   M: What do campers find in the national parks?
   F:  They find fresh air, lakes, forests and many kinds of animals and plants.
   第二个问题是:
   M: Why do people enjoy camping?
   F:  They  enjoy  camping  because  they  can    relax  and  enjoy a  change from  their busy lives in the city.
   第三个问题是:
   M: What conveniences do campers in trailers have?
   F:  They have electricity and hot water.
 

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