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中级美国英语过去进行式(when与while)

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里, 我们学习过去进行式句子, 并且要学习用 when, w-h-e-n, when 跟while, w-h-i-l-e, while, 作表明时间的短句.现在我们来听今天这一课的对话,    内容说到凯特告诉亨利她开车超速被交通警察罚钱的事情. 请你注意听两位英文老师的发音和语调.

   F:  I got a traffic ticket this afternoon.
   M: Were you parking in the wrong place?
   F:  No, I was driving too fast.
   M: How fast were you going?
   F:  55 in a 35 mile per hour zone.
   M: Why were you in such a hurry?
   F:  I left school late and I was trying to get home before the rush hour.
   M: Did you make it?
   F:  No,  when  the  police  officer  was giving    me  the ticket, the rush hour started.  It took me twice as long to get home.

   在刚才那段对话里有一个常用的词 rush hour, r-u-s-h h-o-u-r,   rush hour 这个词指的是上下班交通最拥挤的时刻. 现在我们再把整段对话听一遍. 这次老师念的比较慢, 请你注意听.

   F:  I got a traffic ticket this afternoon.
   M: Were you parking in the wrong place?
   F:  No, I was driving too fast.
   M: How fast were you going?
   F:  55 in a 35 mile per hour zone.
   M: Why were you in such a hurry?
   F:  I left school late and I was trying to get home before the rush hour.
   M: Did you make it?
   F:  No,  when  the  police  officer  was giving    me  the ticket, the rush hour started.  It took me twice as long to get home.

   现在我把刚才那段对话里的过去进行式句子挑出来, 请老师再念一遍给你听.

   M: Were you parking in the wrong place?
   F:  I was driving too fast.
   M: How fast were you going?
   F:  I was trying to get home before the rush hour.
   F:  When the police officer was giving  me  the  ticket, the rush hour  started.

二.过去进行式

   听了上面那些句子,你或许已经注意到过去进行时态就是把动词加上i-n-g, 比方 "停车" park, p-a-r-k, park 变成 parking, "去" go,  g-o, go 变成  going,  然后在这个动词前面斟酌情况用 was, w-a-s,  was 或是  were,    w-e-r-e , were.现在我们来作一组练习,  由老师念一过去式句子,    请学生把句子改成过去进行式, 这些句子都是从刚才那段对话里挑出来的. 下面就是一个例子:

   M: Did you park in the wrong place?
   F:  Were you parking in the wrong place?

   好, 现在我们开始作练习. 学生作句子的时候请你也一起作.

   M: Did you park in the wrong place?
   F:  Were you parking in the wrong place?
   M: I drove too fast.
   F:  I was driving too fast.
   M: How fast did you go?
   F:  How fast were you going?
   M: I tried to get home before the rush hour.
   F:  I was trying to get home before the rush hour.
   M: The police officer gave me a traffic ticket.
   F:  The police officer was giving me a traffic ticket.

三.WHEN

   在英文里过去时态是用来表示在过去某个时间里发生的事情; 而过去进行时态是用来表示在过去的一个动作已经发生的时候另外一个动作正在进行中.这种句子只有在对话中才能够单独存在, 所以我们必须在刚才练习过的过去进行式句子后面分别加上一个用 when,  w-h-e-n,  when    开头的短句来说明过去两个动作的先后程序. 比方 "交通警察在写罚款单给我的时候,交通就开始拥挤起来了" 这句话应该这样说:  The rush hour started when the police officer was giving me a traffic ticket.

   现在我们来作一组练习, 把刚才学过的句子加上时间短句.  练习的作法是先由老师念一个有时间短句的过去进行式句子,然后你会听到一个简短的答覆,请你根据你所听到的来回答问题. 首先我们举一个例子:

   M: How fast were you going when the police officer stopped you?
   F:  55 miles per hour
   F:  I was going 55 miles per hour when the police officer stopped me.

   好, 现在我们开始作练习, 每作完一句就请你听正确答案.

   M: Were you parking in the wrong place when you got a traffic ticket?
   F:  No
   F:  No, I wasn't parking in the wrong place when I got a traffic ticket.
   M: Were you driving too fast when you got a traffic ticket?
   F:  Yes
   F:  Yes, I was driving too fast when I got a traffic ticket.
   M: How fast were you going when the police officer stopped you?
   F:  55 miles per hour
   F:  I was driving 55 miles per hour when the police officer stopped me.
   M: Were you trying to get home before the rush hour when the police officer stopped you?
   F:  Yes
   F:  Yes, I was trying to get home before the rush hour when the police officer stopped me.
   M: Was the police officer giving you a ticket when the rush hour started?
   F:  Yes
   F:  Yes, the police officer was giving me a ticket when the rush hour started.

   下面我们用代换方式作另外一组练习. 在这组练习里用 when 开头的短句包含的是过去进行时态动词,  比方亨利问凯特:     "在你超速的时候你知道时速限制是多少吗?"  Did you know the speed limit when you were speeding? 这个练习谈的都是亨利问凯特关于她开车超速的时候的事情. 在这组练习里, 你可以学到跟交通有关系的几个词, 比方  "时速限制"    speed  limit, s-p-e-e-d l-i-m-i-t, speed limit,   "规则"   ,     r-e-g-u-l-a-t-i-o-n,  regulation, "交通标志"   traffic   sign, t-r-a-f-f-i-c  s-i-g-n, traffic sign, "交通信号灯"    traffic light, t-r-a-f-f-i-c  l-i-g-h-t,  traffic light,  "公路"  highway, h-i-g-h-w-a-y, highway 等等. 现在我们开始作练习.

   M: Did you know the speed limit when you were speeding?
   M: did you know the regulation
   F:  Did you know the regulation when you were speeding?
   M: did you see the police car
   F:  Did you see the police car when you were speeding?
   M: did you see the traffic sign
   F:  Did you see the traffic sign when you were speeding?
   M: did you see the traffic light
   F:  Did you see the traffic light when you were speeding?
   M: what was the speed limit
   F:  What was the speed limit when you were speeding?
   M: how was the traffic
   F:  How was the traffic when you were speeding?
   M: were you on the highway
   F:  Were you on the highway when you were speeding?
   M: were you in a hurry
   F:  Were you in a hurry when you were speeding?

四.WHILE

   现在我们来学习用  while, w-h-i-l-e, while 作表明时间的过去进行语态短句. 这个字跟我们学过的 when 意思相同,但是在用法上有一些区别. while 只能跟进行语态一起用, 而 when 不受这个限制. 一般说来过去的两个动作同时都在进行的时候比较常用 while.下面我们来作一组练习,    内容还是谈到亨利问凯特有关她被交通警察拦下来的事情. 现在请你根据亨利问的问题作肯定的答覆.每作完一句就请你听正确的答案.

   M: Were you talking to the police officer while he was writing the ticket?
   F:  Yes, I was talking to him while he was writing the ticket.
   M: Were you looking at him while he was writing the ticket?
   F:  Yes, I was looking at him while he was writing the ticket.
   M: Were you listening to the radio while you were waiting in your car?
   F:  Yes, I was listening to the radio while I was waiting in my car.
   M: Were you smoking while you were waiting in your car?
   F:  Yes, I was smoking while I was waiting in my car.
   M: Were you thinking while you were smoking?
   F:  Yes, I was thinking while I was smoking.

   下面我们来作另外一组练习,    内容是说凯特向亨利说明她开车的时候并没有在吃东西或是在打电话等等.   练习的作法是凯特先念一个句子,  接着你会听到亨利说出一个动作, 比方 "打电话" making a telephone call 或是 "作白日梦"daydreaming  等等.    请你用亨利说的字或是词来代换原来句子里第一个动词.每作完一句就请你听正确答案.

   F:  I wasn't eating while I was driving.
   M: drinking
   F:  I wasn't drinking while I was driving.
   M: sleeping
   F:  I wasn't sleeping while I was driving.
   M: making a telephone call
   F:  I wasn't making a telephone call while I was driving.
   M: daydreaming
   F:  I wasn't daydreaming while I was driving.
   M: singing
   F:  I wasn't singing while I was driving.

   下面一组练习是由老师念出两个过去式句子,    请学生把句子改成过去进行时态并且用 while 把两个句子合并成一个句子. 首先举个例子.

   M: Henry  watched television at  home. The police  officer gave Kate a ticket.
   F:  Henry was watching  television  while the  police officer  was giving  Kate a ticket.

   这组练习的内容是说当警察把罚款单给凯特的时候,别人都在作什么. 现在请你注意听老师念句子, 并且在学生作句子的时候也一起作.

   M: Henry watched television at home. The police officer gave Kate a ticket.
   F:  Henry was watching television at home while the police officer was giving Kate a ticket.
   M: Peter camped in a national park. Henry watched television at home.
   F:  Peter was camping in a national park while Henry was watching television at home.
   M: Mary hiked in a forest.Peter camped in a national park.
   F:  Mary was hiking in a forest while Peter was camping in a national park.
   M: Linda looked at Peter's graduation pictures. Mary hiked in a forest.
   F:  Linda was looking at Peter's graduation pictures while Mary was hiking in a forest.
   M: Jenny studied in her dormitory. Linda looked at Peter's graduation pictures.
   F:  Jenny  was  studying  in  her dormitory    while  Linda  was looking  at  Peter's  graduation
   pictures.
   M: The police officer gave Kate a ticket. Jenny studied in her dormitory.
   F:  The police officer was giving Kate a ticket while Jenny was studying in her dormitory.

五.听短文回答问题

   首先我们来听一篇文章, 内容是说在美国街道和公路上开车有什么限制,比方要是有人开车超速,  警察就会写罚款单给他;   要是有人一连拿了好几张罚款单就可能暂时不准开车等等.现在请你注意听.

   Many regulations govern drivers on  American   streets and highways. The most common ones are the speed limits. The speed limit regulates how  fast a car may go. On streets in  the  city, the  speed limit is usually 25 or 35 miles per hour.   On  the  highways between cities, the speed limit is usually 55 miles per hour.  When    people drive faster than the speed limit, a policeman can stop them.   The  policeman gives  them  pieces of paper which people call  traffic tickets.   Traffic tickets tell    the drivers how  much money they must pay.  When drivers receive too many tickets, they probably cannot drive for a while. The  rush  hour is  when  people are  going  to work or going  home from work.  At rush hour there  are  many  cars on  the streets  and    traffic  moves  very slowly.  Nearly all  American cities have rush hours.  Drivers do not get  tickets very often    for  speeding during  the  rush hours because they cannot drive fast.

   刚才那篇文章你听懂了吗? 如果没全部听懂, 不要紧, 等一会儿我请英文老师再念一遍给你听. 现在我们先来听今天测验的问题.

   第一个问题是:
   M: What are the speed limits on American streets and highways?
   第二个问题是:
   M: What will happen when people drive faster than the speed limit?
   第三个问题是:
   M: How is the traffic during the rush hour?

   现在我请英文老师用慢速度再把整篇文章念一遍.

   Many regulations govern drivers on  American   streets and highways. The most common ones are the speed limits. The speed limit regulates how  fast a car may go. On streets in  the  city, the  speed limit is usually 25 or 35 miles per hour.   On  the  highways between cities, the speed limit is usually 55 miles per hour.  When    people drive faster than the speed limit, a policeman can stop them.   The  policeman gives  them  pieces of paper which people call  traffic tickets.   Traffic tickets tell    the drivers how  much money they must pay.  When drivers receive too many tickets, they probably cannot drive for a while. The  rush  hour is  when  people are  going  to work or going  home from work.  At rush hour there  are  many  cars on  the streets  and    traffic  moves  very slowly.  Nearly all  American cities have rush hours.  Drivers do not get  tickets very often    for  speeding during  the  rush hours because they cannot drive fast.

   好, 现在请你回答下面三个问题.

   第一个问题是:
   M: What are the speed limits on American streets and highways?
   F:  On streets in the city, the speed limit is usually 25 or 35 miles per  hour. On the highways, the speed limit is usually 55 miles per hour.
   第二个问题是:
   M: What will happen when people drive faster than the speed limit?
   F:  A policeman can stop them and give them tickets.
   第三个问题是:
   M: How is the traffic during the rush hour?
   F:  The traffic is usually very slow during the rush hour.

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