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中级美国英语被动语态(一)

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里,我们要学习被动语态. 比方有一句话: "我们的车修好了." Our car was repaired. 在这句话里, 主语 "车" car 就是动作 "修理"    repair 的对象.现在我们来听一段包含了被动语态句子的对话, 内容是说凯特跟亨利从修汽车谈到上成人学校的事情. 请你注意听两位英文教师的发音和语调.

   M: Kate, our car needs to be fixed again.
   F:  But it was just repaired a few months ago.
   M: I know. Maybe the repair job wasn't done well.
   F:  I hope that it will be fixed this time.
   M: I hope so too. I wish I knew about car repair.
   F:  Why   don't  you  learn?  I'm  sure  courses  are offered   on   car   repair    at    Seattle Community College.
   M: That's a good idea. I wonder when courses begin.
   F:  Let's get a school catalogue and see  what courses are    scheduled.  I'd  like  to  take a computer course.
   M: Imagine, Kate, you and I going back to school.

   现在我请两位英文老师用慢速度再把整段对话念一遍.

   M: Kate, our car needs to be fixed again.
   F:  But it was just repaired a few months ago.
   M: I know. Maybe the repair job wasn't done well.
   F:  I hope that it will be fixed this time.
   M: I hope so too. I wish I knew about car repair.
   F:  Why   don't  you  learn?   I'm  sure  courses  are  offered   on   car   repair    at    Seattle Community College.
   M: That's a good idea. I wonder when courses begin.
   F:  Let's get a school catalogue and see  what courses are    scheduled.  I'd  like  to  take a computer course.
   M: Imagine, Kate, you and I going back to school.

   下面我们来听刚才那段对话里的被动语态句子.

   M: Our car needs to be fixed again.
   F:  It was repaired a few months ago.
   M: Maybe the repair job wasn't done well.
   F:  I hope that it will be fixed this time.
   F:  Courses are offered on car repair.
   M: Let's see what courses are scheduled.

二.被动语态

   听了上面的句子,或许你已经注意到被动语态就是以助动词 be, b-e, be加上及物动词的过去分词构成的.现在我请英文老师念一些句子把主动语态和被动语态作个比较.  句子的内容都是有关修理汽车的事情. 比方, 男老师说:  " 修车工人装了新刹车."   The mechanic installed new brakes.  女老师就用被动语态说:    "刹车装好了."   New brakes were installed. 现在我们开始. 请你注意听.

   M: The mechanic repaired the car.
   F:  The car was repaired.
   M: The mechanic did the repair job.
   F:  The repair job was done.
   M: The mechanic changed the oil.
   F:  The oil was changed.
   M: The mechanic installed new brakes.
   F:  New brakes were installed.

   下面我们要比较否定句的主动语态和被动语态;句子的内容还是说到修车, 比方修车工人没有检查引擎, 没有换电池等等. 请你注意听.

   M: The mechanic didn't fix the car.
   F:  The car wasn't fixed.
   M: The mechanic didn't check the engine.
   F:  The engine wasn't checked.
   M: The mechanic didn't change the battery.
   F:  The battery wasn't changed.
   M: The mechanic didn't wash the car.
   F:  The car wasn't washed.

   在今天这一课的对话里, 亨利和凯特除了谈修车以外, 还谈到社区大学为了让成人进修而在晚上设立的成人教育计划.     下面一组练习谈的就是成人教育计划. 比方他们排了很多课, 寄出了学校目录, 招收成人学生, 使学生的生活更充实等等. 练习的作法是由男老师念主动语态句子, 请你把句子改成被动语态说出来. 每作完一句就请你听女老师念正确答案.

   M: They offered various courses at night.
   F:  Various courses were offered at night.
   M: They scheduled various courses at night.
   F:  Various courses were scheduled at night.
   M: They sent out catalogues.
   F:  Catalogues were sent out.
   M: They enrolled adult students at night.
   F:  Adult students were enrolled at night.
   M: They enriched adult students' lives.
   F:  Adult students' lives were enriched.

   刚才我们练习的都是过去式句子, 现在我们练习把那些句子改成现在完成式.现在完成式被动语态就是用 have been 或是 has been加上及物动词的过去分词. 练习的作法是老师用疑问词提出问句,接着老师念一个字或是词,   请你用你听到的回答问题. 每作完一句还是请你听正确答案.

   M: What has been offered?
   M: various courses
   F:  Various courses have been offered.
   M: What has been scheduled?
   M: various courses
   F:  Various courses have been scheduled.
   M: What has been sent out?
   M: catalogues
   F:  Catalogues have been sent out.
   M: Who has been enrolled?
   M: adult students
   F:  Adult students have been enrolled.
   M: Whose lives have been enriched?
   M: adult students'
   F:  Adult students' lives have been enriched.

   下面一组练习是说人们为什么要上成人学校, 比方他们要受更多教育,需要更多知识; 他们也需要受特别训练, 得到特别技能,    以便找新职业和更好的工作等等. 练习的作法是老师念现在式主动语态句子,学生就用 is 或是 are 加上动词 "需要" 的过去分词 needed, 把句子改成被动语态说出来.  学生作练习的时候, 请你也一起作.

   M: Students need more education.
   F:  More education is needed
   M: Students need more knowledge.
   F:  More knowledge is needed.
   M: Students need special training.
   F:  Special training is needed.
   M: Students need special skills.
   F:  Special skills are needed.
   M: Students need new professions.
   F:  New professions are needed.
   M: Students need better jobs.
   F:  Better jobs are needed.

   刚才那个练习里有些字可能你不太熟,    现在我们再把练习里的被动语态句子重复练习一下. 每个句子我们念两遍, 请你听一遍, 跟着老师重复一遍.

   M: More education is needed.
   F:  More education is needed.
   M: More knowledge is needed.
   F:  More knowledge is needed.
   M: Special training is needed.
   F:  Special training is needed.
   M: Special skills are needed.
   F:  Special skills are needed.
   M: New professions are needed.
   F:  New professions are needed.
   M: Better jobs are needed.
   F:  Better jobs are needed.

   刚才我们用被动语态句子叙述了学生的需要;    现在我们作一组练习,  看看成人学校应该教什么课程.   比方有一句话:     "他们应该教工程学"  They  should teach engineering. 这句话改成被动语态就应该把should teach 变成 should be taught, 整句话应该是: Engineering  should  be taught.  这组练习的作法是由老师把刚才那句话念一遍,     接着老师念出一个课程的名称,    比方:    "会计学"accounting.  "通讯学"  communication,     "铅管业"    plumbing,  "修理电动设备"electrical   repair,  "先进技术"  advanced    technology 等等, 学生就把老师提出的字或是词代换到句子里.  现在我们开始作练习.  学生作练习的时候请你也一起作.

   M: Engineering should be taught.
   M: computer science
   F:  Computer science should be taught.
   M: accounting
   F:  Accounting should be taught.
   M: communication
   F:  Communication should be taught.
   M: plumbing
   F:  Plumbing should be taught.
   M: electrical repair
   F:  Electrical repair should be taught.
   M: foreign languages
   F:  Foreign languages should be taught.
   M: advanced technology
   F:  Advanced technology should be taught.

   除了助动词 should 以外, 包含其它助动词的句子, 在变成被动语态的时候 也都是在助动词后面加上  be 再加上动词的过去分词. 比方: Engineering will be taught. Engineering can be taught 跟 Engineering might  be taught 等等. 这种变化等一会儿我们还有机会练习. 下面我们练习用现在进行式被动语态来叙述成人学校这个学期正在教什么课.     老师先念一个主动语态句子, 学生就用 is   或是 are 加上  being, b-e-i-n-g, being    再加上动词的过去分词构成被动语态说出来. 在学生作练习的时候, 请你跟着一起作.

   M: They are teaching electrical repair this term.
   F:  Electrical repair is being taught this term.
   M: They are teaching advanced technology this term.
   F:  Advanced technology is being taught this term.
   M: They are teaching communication this term.
   F:  Communication is being taught this term.
   M: They are teaching foreign languages this term.
   F:  Foreign languages are being taught this term.
   M: They are teaching computers this term.
   F:  Computers are being taught this term.
   M: They are teaching engineering and accounting this term.
   F:  Engineering and accounting are being taught this term.

   下面我们把刚才那组练习里的被动语态句子重复练习一下. 请你听一遍跟着老师重复一遍.

   M: Electrical repair is being taught this term.
   F:  Electrical repair is being taught this term.
   M: Advanced technology is being taught this term.
   F:  Advanced technology is being taught this term.
   M: Communication is being taught this term.
   F:  Communication is being taught this term.
   M: Foreign languages are being taught this term.
   F:  Foreign languages are being taught this term.
   M: Computers are being taught this term.
   F:  Computers are being taught this term.
   M: Engineering and accounting are being taught this term.
   F:  Engineering and accounting are being taught this term.

   刚才我们作的几组练习都是说到成人学校的课程, 现在我们要作一组练习谈谈成人学校的贡献,比方成人学校可以满足人们多受教育的需求,可以使人们事业更发达,  生活更充实;    要是人们学会自己修东西就可以避免出高价请别人来修等等.    练习的作法是老师说出一个将来式被动语态句子,    请你把句子里的 will be 改成 is going to be 或是 are going to be 说出来,    每作完一句就请你听老师念正确答案.

   M: Older people's careers will be enhanced.
   F:  Older people's careers are going to be enhanced.
   M: Their lives will be enriched.
   F:  Their lives are going to be enriched.
   M: High costs for repairs will be avoided.
   F:  High costs for repairs are going to be avoided.
   M: The demand for more education will be met.
   F:  The demand for more education is going to be met.

三.听短文回答问题

   在下一课里我们还有机会练习被动语态. 现在我们来听今天这一课的文章.这篇文章谈到美国成人教育计划的课程和功用.    文章里的词汇都是我们刚才练习过的.现在请你注意听.

   Millions of  people  are  enrolled in   evening adult   education  programs  across  America. Community colleges have become popular and their enrollments have increased rapidly. Large universities are offering more courses in the evenings for adult students. In this way, the demand for more education is being met. One reason for this is that  many  older  people  are changing their professions. They are looking for  different careers.  Another  reason  is  that repair costs  have  increased. Adults are taking courses like plumbing and electrical repair. This way they hope that the high costs for repairs can be avoided. Advanced   technology is the  most important reason for  the  rise  in adult  education. Engineers, teachers and businessmen are  taking  adult education  classes.  They  have found that more education is  needed  to do  their jobs well.  Various courses  are offered. Computers and business courses are taken by many adult students.  Foreign languages, accounting and communication courses are also popular.  Some students attend classes to earn degrees. Others  take  courses for  the knowledge and skills that they can receive. The lives of many people have been enriched because of adult education.

   等一会儿我再请英文老师把文章念一遍, 现在请你先听今天测验的三个问题.

   第一个问题是:
   M: Where can one take adult education courses?
   第二个问题是:
   M: Why has adult education become popular?
   第三个问题是:
   M: What are some of the courses offered in adult education programs?

   好, 现在我们再把文章听一遍. 这次老师念得比较慢,    请你特别注意上面三个问题的答案.

   Millions of  people  are  enrolled in   evening adult   education  programs  across  America. Community colleges have become popular and their enrollments have increased rapidly. Large universities are offering more courses in the evenings for adult students. In this way, the demand for more education is being met. One reason for this is that  many  older  people  are changing their professions. They are looking for  different careers.  Another  reason  is  that repair costs  have  increased. Adults are taking courses like plumbing and electrical repair. This way they hope that the high costs for repairs can be avoided. Advanced   technology is the  most important reason for  the  rise  in adult  education. Engineers, teachers and businessmen are  taking  adult education  classes.  They  have found that more education is  needed  to do  their jobs well.  Various courses  are offered. Computers and business courses are taken by many adult students.  Foreign languages, accounting and communication courses are also popular.  Some students attend classes to earn degrees. Others  take  courses for  the knowledge and skills that they can receive. The lives of many people have been enriched because of adult education.

   现在请你回答下面三个问题. 每回答一句就请你听老师念正确答案.

   第一个问题是:
   M: Where can one take adult education courses?
   F:  One can take adult education courses in a community college or university.
   第二个问题是:
   M: Why has adult education become popular?
   F:  Changing professions, high costs for  repairs  and    advanced  technology are some of the reasons for the rise in adult education.
   第三个问题是:
   M: What are some of the courses offered in adult education programs?
   F:  Plumbing,  electrical  repair,  foreign    languages,  accounting  and  communication  are some of the courses offered in adult education programs.

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