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中级美国英语被动语态(二)

所属教程:中级美国英语

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里, 我们还是学习被动语态. 我们要把不同的动词用在不同时态的被动语态句子里, 反覆练习. 首先我们还是依照惯例听一段对话.    这段对话的内容是说亨利跟同事南希谈到办公室的各种变动. 请你注意听两位英文老师的发音和语调.

   M: What's going on around here? All the offices were changed.
   F:  Haven't you heard? Where have you been, anyway?
   M: I was sent to Chicago. I just got back.
   F:  Well, a lot of changes were made last week. For one thing, Marta was transferred.
   M: Where is she now? Was she promoted?
   F:  Yes, she was transferred to the main office downtown.
   M: I see. What about you? Were you promoted too?
   F:  No, at least not yet. But I was given a new office.
   M: It's very nice. Congratulations!

   现在我们把整段对话再听一遍, 请你注意听.

   M: What's going on around here? All the offices were changed.
   F:  Haven't you heard? Where have you been, anyway?
   M: I was sent to Chicago. I just got back.
   F:  Well, a lot of changes were made last week. For one thing, Marta was transferred.
   M: Where is she now? Was she promoted?
   F:  Yes, she was transferred to the main office downtown.
   M: I see. What about you? Were you promoted too?
   F:  No, at least not yet. But I was given a new office.
   M: It's very nice. Congratulations!

   下面我请老师把对话里的被动语态句子再念一遍给你听.

   M: All the offices were changed.
   M: I was sent to Chicago.
   F:  A lot of changes were made last week.
   F:  Marta was transferred.
   M: Was she promoted?
   F:  She was transferred to the main office downtown.
   M: Were you promoted too?
   F:  I was given a new office.

二.被动语态

   听了上面那些句子,   你或许已经注意到每个句子都只是提到接受动作的对象而没有提到这些动作的执行者,   比方我们不知道是谁把玛尔塔调走了,   是谁给了南希一间新的办公室等等. 其实在英文里凡是不知道谁是动作执行者,或者这点并不重要的时候就常常用被动语态来表达意思. 下面我们作一组练习, 由男老师用 "某个人" someone 把刚才对话里的一些句子用主动语态说出来,接着女老师把句子改成被动语态疑问句, 你听了问句之后请你用被动语态作肯定的答覆. 首先我们举一个例子:

   M: Someone changed all the offices.
   F:  Were all the offices changed?
   M: Yes, all the offices were changed.

   现在我们开始作练习, 每作完一句就请你听老师念正确答案.

   M: Someone changed all the offices.
   F:  Were all the offices changed?
   M: Yes, all the offices were changed.
   M: Someone sent Henry to Chicago.
   F:  Was Henry sent to Chicago?
   M: Yes, Henry was sent to Chicago.
   M: Someone made a lot of changes.
   F:  Were a lot of changes made?
   M: Yes, a lot of changes were made.
   M: Someone transferred Marta.
   F:  Was Marta transferred?
   M: Yes, Marta was transferred.
   M: Someone promoted Marta.
   F:  Was Marta promoted?
   M: Yes, Marta was promoted.
   M: Someone gave Nancy a new office.
   F:  Was Nancy given a new office?
   M: Yes, Nancy was given a new office.

   下面我们来复习不同时态的被动语态句子.   练习的作法是老师念一个过去式被动语态句子,   接着老师念出一部份动词词组,   然后学生就把词组代换到句子里形成另外一种时态, 学生作练习的时候请你注意听.

   M: Several changes were made in the office.
   M: have been
   F:  Several changes have been made in the office.
   M: will be
   F:  Several changes will be made in the office.
   M: can be
   F:  Several changes can be made in the office.
   M: should be
   F:  Several changes should be made in the office.
   M: need to be
   F:  Several changes need to be made in the office.
   M: are going to be
   F:  Several changes are going to be made in the office.
   M: are being
   F:  Several changes are being made in the office.

   下面我们按照刚才那个练习的作法, 一方面复习被动语态, 一方面学习一些有关办公室活动的词汇. 现在我们开始作练习, 请你在学生作练习的时候也一起作.

   M: Company policies were established.
   M: have been
   F:  Company policies have been established.
   M: need to be
   F:  Company policies need to be established.
   M: will be
   F:  Company policies will be established.
   M: The company policies were carried out.
   M: are
   F:  The company policies are carried out.
   M: are being
   F:  The company policies are being carried out.
   M: are going to be
   F:  The company policies are going to be carried out.
   M: Office workers were supervised.
   M: should be
   F:  Office workers should be supervised.
   M: can be
   F:  Office workers can be supervised.
   M: need to be
   F:  Office workers need to be supervised.
   M: Office employees were trained.
   M: are going to be
   F:  Office employees are going to be trained.
   M: are being
   F:  Office employees are being trained.
   M: have been
   F:  Office employees have been trained.
   M: Education was emphasized.
   M: has been
   F:  Education has been emphasized.
   M: is
   F:  Education is emphasized.
   M: needs to be
   F:  Education needs to be emphasized.
   M: Business courses were offered.
   M: will be
   F:  Business courses will be offered.
   M: are going to be
   F:  Business courses are going to be offered.
   M: are being
   F:  Business courses are being offered.
   M: The graduates were placed in management jobs.
   M: should be
   F:  The graduates should be placed in management jobs.
   M: are being
   F:  The graduates are being placed in management jobs.
   M: are
   F:  The graduates are placed in management jobs.
   M: People with ability were selected.
   M: will be
   F:  People with ability will be selected.
   M: are
   F:  People with ability are selected.
   M: have been
   F:  People with ability have been selected.
   M: A responsible worker was promoted.
   M: should be
   F:  A responsible worker should be promoted.
   M: is going to be
   F:  A responsible worker is going to be promoted.
   M: has been
   F:  A responsible worker has been promoted.

三.BY和WITH

   刚才我们复习了不同时态的被动语态句子, 也学习了一些新词汇. 现在我们练习用介词 by, b-y, by加上名词来表明被动语态句子里的动作执行者, 比方有一句:Company policies are established by top managers. 这句话的意思就是: 公司政策是由高级主管制订的. 下面我们作一组练习学学这类句子. 练习的作法是由老师念我们刚才练习过的句子,     接着老师念出名词,    比方   "监督人员"supervisors. " 行政人员" administrators  等等. 请你用 by 和老师给你的名词说出被动语态句子. 每作完一句就请你听正确答案.

   M: Company policies are established.
   M: top managers
   F:  Company policies are established by top managers.
   M: Company policies are carried out.
   M: company workers
   F:  Company policies are carried out by company workers.
   M: Office workers are supervised.
   M: their supervisors
   F:  Office workers are supervised by their supervisors.
   M: Education is emphasized.
   M: the government
   F:  Education is emphasized by the government.
   M: People with ability are selected.
   M: administrators
   F:  People with ability are selected by administrators.

   在被动语态句子里, 用介词by可以表明人物, 可是一般来说用 with, w-i-t-h, with可以表明东西,  比方 "商业区里到处是大公司总部."   The business district is crowded  with  corporation  headquarters.  "大楼里到处是政府机关."   The large office buildings are filled with government agencies.    这两个句子就是很好的例子. 现在我们来作代换练习; 练习里的句子都是说到商业区到处是大楼,  银行和百货商店等等. 首先由老师念一个句子,    接着老师念一个字或是一个词组,请你把你听到的代换到原来的句子里. 每作完一句就请你听老师念正确答案.

   M: The business district is crowded with large office buildings.
   M: banks
   F:  The business district is crowded with banks.
   M: corporation headquarters
   F:  The business district is crowded with corporation headquarters.
   M: department stores
   F:  The business district is crowded with department stores.

   下面老师换了一个句子:

   M: The large office buildings are filled with corporation headquarters.
   M: banks
   F:  The large office buildings are filled with banks.
   M: government agencies
   F:  The large office buildings are filled with government agencies.
   M: small companies
   F:  The large office buildings are filled with small companies.

四.听短文回答问题

   首先我们来听一篇文章, 内容是说美国重视商业, 在美国城市商业区里大楼林立, 一般办公室工作人员, 也就是所谓的  "白领阶级" 勤奋工作和进修的情况. 文章里有许多被动语态句子,许多词汇也都是我们刚才练习过的.请你注意听,等一会儿我们要根据文章问你几个问题. 现在开始.

   "The business of America is business."    This was once said by an American president.  The business district of an American city is crowded with large office   buildings which are filled with banks, corporation headquarters, and government  agencies.  Every weekday morning thousands of office workers enter these  buildings and leave in the evening.  The men and women who do the office work are called white-collar workers.   Secretaries, computer operators and administrators are all white-collar workers. Many  office workers work  and  hope  that  they will be promoted to more responsible positions.  They  want to supervise  other  workers  and  see  that  the company  policies  are  carried  out. These policies are established by the top managers. Sometimes  office   workers are transferred to other places.  Nowadays, education is emphasized in the selection of men and women for management jobs. Courses in business administration are offered by many universities.  The graduates of these courses often are placed in middle management jobs.  From these,  they  can  be promoted easily when they show the necessary personality and ability.

   刚才那篇文章你听懂了多少? 如果没有全部听懂, 没有关系,   等一会儿我们再 听英文老师用慢速度念一遍. 现在我们先来听今天测验的三个问题.

   第一个问题是:
   M: Who are the white-collar workers?
   第二个问题是:
   M: What does one find in the business district of an American city?
   第三个问题是:
   M: How can one get a management job?

   好, 现在我们再听老师用慢速度把文章念一遍. 

  "The business of America is business."    This was once said by an American president.  The business district of an American city is crowded with large office   buildings which are filled with banks, corporation headquarters, and government  agencies.  Every weekday morning thousands of office workers enter these  buildings and leave in the evening.  The men and women who do the office work are called white-collar workers.   Secretaries, computer operators and administrators are all white-collar workers. Many  office workers work  and  hope  that  they will be promoted to more responsible positions.  They  want to supervise  other  workers  and  see  that  the company  policies  are  carried  out. These policies are established by the top managers. Sometimes  office   workers are transferred to other places.  Nowadays, education is emphasized in the selection of men and women for management jobs. Courses in business administration are offered by many universities.  The graduates of these courses often are placed in middle management jobs.  From these,  they  can  be promoted easily when they show the necessary personality and ability.  

   好,  现在请你回答下面三个问题. 每作完一句就请你听老师念正确答案看你答对了没有.

   第一个问题是: 
   M: Who are the white-collar workers?
   F:  People who do office work  are  white-collar workers. Secretaries, computer operators and adminstrators are all white-collar workers.

   第二个问题是:
   M: What does one find in the business district of an American city?
   F:  One  finds  large office  buildings which are filled with banks, corporation headquarters and government agencies.

   第三个问题是:
   M: How can one get a management job?
   F:  One should study business administration at a university.

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