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中级美国英语简短反问句

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里, 我们学习用简短的反问句,比方用在陈述句后面的 "是吗?" Is it?,"不是吗?" Isn't it? 等等. 现在我们来听这一课的对话.   这段对话的内容是说鲍勃和珍妮暑假过后回到学校, 在校园里谈到假期里作了什么事, 明年暑假预备作什么等等.  请你注意听两位英文老师的发音和语调.

   F: Hello, Bob. How was your summer? You studied Chinese this summer, didn't you?
   M: Yes, Jenny. I finished my summer school class.
   F:  Well, how was the course? Chinese is pretty difficult, isn't it?
   M: It seemed that way at first. But after a while it became easier.
   F:  I'll bet you were the best in the class, weren't you?
   M: Well, I did get an A. But how about you? You were going to travel, weren't you?
   F:  Not this summer. I worked to save money. I'm going to Europe next summer.
   M: I'm going to China. I guess we'll have lots to talk about next year, won't we?

   现在我们听老师用慢速度把对话再念一遍, 请你注意听.

   F: Hello, Bob. How was your summer? You studied Chinese this summer, didn't you?
   M: Yes, Jenny. I finished my summer school class.
   F:  Well, how was the course? Chinese is pretty difficult, isn't it?
   M: It seemed that way at first. But after a while it became easier.
   F:  I'll bet you were the best in the class, weren't you?
   M: Well, I did get an A. But how about you? You were going to travel, weren't you?
   F:  Not this summer. I worked to save money. I'm going to Europe next summer.
   M: I'm going to China. I guess we'll have lots to talk about next year, won't we?

   下面我们再听老师把对话里有简短反问句的句子念一遍.

   F:  You studied Chinese this summer, didn't you?
   F:  Chinese is pretty difficult, isn't it?
   F:  You were the best in the class, weren't you?
   M: You were going to travel, weren't you?
   M: We'll have lots to talk about next year,won't we?

二.简短反问句

   听了上面的句子, 你对简短反问句的用法或许已经有些概念. 简单地说这种反问句有三个规则, 第一点就是当前面的陈述句是肯定的时候, 反问句就是否定的;  而前面的陈述句是否定的时候, 反问句就是肯定的;   第二点就是这种简短反问句是用两个字构成的,    第一个字一定是在前面陈述句里出现的动词或是助动词;    第二个字一定是代名词而且指的就是陈述句里的主语;    第三点就是反问句和前面陈述句的时态必须一致. 好了, 现在我们按照规则作练习, 第一组练习是用 is 或是 are 作否定的简短反问句, 请你注意在否定反问句里动词或是助动词一定要跟 not 连起来说,  比方is not 说成 isn't, were not 说成 weren't 等等.   现在请你注意听男老师念一些跟刚才那段对话有关系的句子, 然后跟着女老师把句子重复一遍.

   M: Bob is a university student, isn't he?
   F:  Bob is a university student, isn't he?
   M: Jenny is in the same university, isn't she?
   F:  Jenny is in the same university, isn't she?
   M: They are talking on the campus, aren't they?
   F:  They are talking on the campus, aren't they?
   M: The campus is big, isn't it?
   F:  The campus is big, isn't it?
   M: They are talking about traveling, aren't they?
   F:  They are talking about traveling, aren't they?

   下面我们用代换方式练习用 will not 也就是 won't 作简短反问句,  练习的内容是说到鲍勃要到中国去旅行的事情,  比方他要坐飞机去,  要带旅游指南去等等.  老师念一个句子, 接着老师念一个词组, 学生就把词组代换到原来的句子里. 在学生作练习的时候请你也一起作.

   M: Bob will fly to China, won't he?
   M: take a guide book with him
   F:  Bob will take a guide book with him, won't he?
   M: take a Chinese dictionary with him
   F:  Bob will take a Chinese dictionary with him,won't he?

   下面老师换了一个句子, 练习用 should  not 也就是 shouldn't 作反问句, 说明鲍勃去中国应该有护照和旅游签证等等. 请你跟刚才一样作练习.

   M: Bob should have a passport, shouldn't he?
   M: have a tourist visa
   F:  Bob should have a tourist visa, shouldn't he?
   M: take enough money with him
   F:  Bob should take enough money with him, shouldn't he?

   下面老师又换了一个句子, 练习用 cannot 也就是 can't 作反问句说明鲍勃到中国去能作什么. 请你跟刚才一样作练习.

   M: Bob can go sightseeing, can't he?
   M: take pictures
   F:  Bob can take pictures, can't he?
   M: chat with Chinese
   F:  Bob can chat with Chinese, can't he?

   下面我们练习在现在完成式句子后面用 hasn't 或是 haven't   加上主语代名词作否定反问句. 练习里的句子有些谈到珍妮决定到欧洲的事情,有的谈到珍妮和鲍勃在大学里的生活. 练习的作法是由老师念一个陈述句,学生就把句子重复一遍, 并且在句尾加上适当的反问句. 在学生作练习的时候请你也一起作.

   M: Jenny has decided to go to Europe.
   F:  Jenny has decided to go to Europe, hasn't she?
   M: Jenny has saved some money for the trip.
   F:  Jenny has saved some money for the trip, hasn't she?
   M: Jenny and Bob have taken many interesting courses.
   F:  Jenny and Bob have taken many interesting courses, haven't they?
   M: Jenny and Bob have learned a lot.
   F:  Jenny and Bob have learned a lot, haven't they?

   一般现在式句子的否定句是在动词前面加上 don't  或是 doesn't.  所以一般现在式句子的否定反问句就是在句尾用 don't 或是 doesn't 加上主语代名词.  现在我们来作代换练习,学学这种说法.请你在学生作代换练习的时候也一起作.

   M: Bob and Jenny need education, don't they?
   M: knowledge
   F:  Bob and Jenny need knowledge, don't they?
   M: advice
   F:  Bob and Jenny need advice, don't they?
   M: skills
   F:  Bob and Jenny need skills, don't they?

   下面老师换了一个句子作代换练习, 内容是说鲍勃在开学之前需要作些什么.现在请你跟学生一起作练习.

   M: Bob needs to get a school catalogue, doesn't he?
   M: register
   F:  Bob needs to register, doesn't he?
   M: pay tuition
   F:  Bob needs to pay tuition, doesn't he?

   现在我们再来学习作简短的反问句. 用 There is 或是 There   are 开头的句子在句尾加上否定反问句的时候必须用 isn't there 或是 aren't there. 现在我们来作一组练习,  谈谈美国教育.   练习的作法是先由老师念一个句子,学生重复一遍,并且在句尾加适当的反问句. 请你还是跟学生一起作练习.

   M: There are a lot of universities and community colleges in the United States.
   F:  There are a lot of universities and community colleges in the United States, aren't there?
   M: There are adult education programs as well.
   F:  There are adult education programs as well, aren't there?
   M: There are a lot of foreign students in American universities.
   F:  There are a lot  of foreign students in American universities, aren't  there?

   刚才我们作的练习都是在肯定的陈述句的句尾加上否定的反问句,   下面我们要练习在否定的陈述句后面加上肯定的反问句.   下面这组练习的内容都是有关鲍勃到中国去的事情.   练习的作法还是由老师念一个句子.   学生在重复句子的时候在句尾加上适当的反问句, 在学生作练习的时候还是请你一起作.

   M: Bob hasn't been to China yet.
   F:  Bob hasn't been to China yet, has he?
   M: He won't go by boat.
   F:  He won't go by boat, will he?
   M: He cannot get there by train.
   F:  He cannot get there by train, can he?
   M: It isn't dangerous to fly.
   F:  It isn't dangerous to fly, is it?
   M: He shouldn't worry about flying.
   F:  He shouldn't worry about flying, should he?
   M: Bob doesn't plan to stop over in Hong Kong.
   F:  Bob doesn't plan to stop over in Hong Kong, does he?

   下面一组练习是把被动语态跟反问句配合起来.练习的做法是老师念一个被动语态否定句, 学生跟着重复一遍, 并且在句尾加上适当的肯定反问句.这些句子都是说到游客到中国旅行应该注意的事情,   比方他们不应该用美元, 不应该跟私人换货币, 有些历史古迹还不开放等等.   请你跟学生一起作练习.

   M: U.S. dollars aren't used in China.
   F:  U.S. dollars aren't used in China, are they?
   M: English isn't commonly spoken.
   F:  English isn't commonly spoken, is it?
   M: Dollars cannot be exchanged with private citizens.
   F:  Dollars cannot be exchanged with private citizens, can they?
   M: Some Chinese historical sites haven't been opened to the public.
   F:  Some Chinese historical sites haven't been opened to the public, have they?
   M: Pictures shouldn't be taken in some museums.
   F:  Pictures shouldn't be taken in some museums, should they?

   刚才我说过反问句的时态必须跟前面的陈述句一致. 在下面一组练习里, 陈述句都是过去式句子, 所以句尾的反问句也必须是过去式的. 练习里的句子都是说到珍妮和鲍勃夏天里的活动, 有些句子是肯定的, 有些句子是否定的,   你听了老师念的句子之后请你把句子重复一遍, 并且在句尾加上适当的反问句. 每作一句就请你听老师念正确答案.

   M: Bob took Chinese in summer school.
   F:  Bob took Chinese in summer school, didn't he?
   M: He finished the course.
   F:  He finished the course, didn't he?
   M: He was the best in his class.
   F:  He was the best in his class, wasn't he?
   M: He didn't have much free time.
   F:  He didn't have much free time, did he?
   M: Jenny worked in the summer.
   F:  Jenny worked in the summer, didn't she?
   M: She had a good time in summer.
   F:  She had a good time in summer, hadn't she?
   M: She saved some money.
   F:  She saved some money, didn't she?
   M: She wouldn't waste her money.
   F:  She wouldn't waste her money, would she?
   M: She couldn't go traveling.
   F:  She couldn't go traveling, could she?

三.听短文回答问题

   我们今天要听的文章就是介绍什么是简短反问句.   文章里除了谈到人们在什么场合用反问句,    还详细说明了用这种反问句的几个规则.  这些规则我刚才已经用中文说明过了, 我们也按照规则作了不少练习,  现在请你听听英文说明, 看看是不是听得懂.

   Tag  questions  are  commonly  used  in   conversations  by  American English speakers.  Tag questions are short questions which are added to the end of statements.   A  person uses a tag question because he isn't sure of what he has said.  He   adds a  tag question to his statement to make the listener talk. The listener may agree with the speaker  or  he may correct the speaker.  Tag questions have two words.  The  first  word is   always a  helping  verb such as "is" or "does".  The  helping  verb of a  tag question must  be the same tense as the tense of the main statement.  All helping verbs can be used in a tag question.  They may be positive or  they  may  be  negative  contractions with   "n't".  The second word of a tag question is always a pronoun.  The pronoun stands for the subject of the main statement.  A name  is never repeated in a tag question.   Most  languages  have  expressions  like  tag   questions.   But  English  tag  questions are more difficult  than  those of  other  languages.   Each  tag question must agree in tense and subject  with  its  preceding  statement.  However,   when  the  statement  is positive, the tag question  must  be negative; and  when  the   statement  is negative,  the  tag question must be positive. Tag questions in English are very difficult indeed.

   刚才那篇文章你要是没有全听懂,  等一会儿还有机会听, 现在我们先来听今天测验的三个问题.

   第一个问题是:
   M: What are tag questions?
   第二个问题是:
   M: Why do people use tag questions?
   第三个问题是:
   M: What are the two words of a tag question?

   现在我们再听英文老师用慢速度把文章念一遍. 

   Tag  questions  are  commonly  used  in   conversations  by  American English speakers.  Tag questions are short questions which are added to the end of statements.   A  person uses a tag question because he isn't sure of what he has said.  He   adds a  tag question to his statement to make the listener talk. The listener may agree with the speaker  or  he may correct the speaker.  Tag questions have two words.  The  first  word is   always a  helping  verb such as "is" or "does".  The  helping  verb of a  tag question must  be the same tense as the tense of the main statement.  All helping verbs can be used in a tag question.  They may be positive or  they  may  be  negative  contractions with   "n't".  The second word of a tag question is always a pronoun.  The pronoun stands for the subject of the main statement.  A name  is never repeated in a tag question.   Most  languages  have  expressions  like  tag   questions.   But  English  tag  questions are more difficult  than  those of  other  languages.   Each  tag question must agree in tense and subject  with  its  preceding  statement.  However,   when  the  statement  is positive, the tag question  must  be negative; and  when  the   statement  is negative,  the  tag question must be positive. Tag questions in English are very difficult indeed. 

   现在请你回答下面三个问题, 每回答一句就请你听老师念正确答案.

   第一个问题是:
   M: What are tag questions?
   F:  Tag questions are short questions which are added to the end of statements.

   第二个问题是:
   M: Why do people use tag questions?
   F:  People use tag questions because they are not sure of what they have said.

   第三个问题是:
   M: What are the two words of a tag question?
   F:  The two words are a helping verb and a pronoun.

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