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中级美国英语复习现在完成时态

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里, 我们复习现在完成时态, 同时也要学习一些医药方面的词汇.首先我们听一段对话, 内容是说凯特和亨利谈到医药保险的事情. 请你注意英文老师的发音和语调.

   F:  Our health insurance bill came yesterday. The cost has increased again.
   M: Again? We have had two increases this year.
   F:  Medical care has been so expensive lately.
   M: Remember when Peter was in the hospital after his accident last year?
   F:  I sure  do. The  hospital bill for that  was over    three  thousand dollars; and how  much did the doctor charge us?
   M: I don't remember. But our insurance paid for all the bills.
   F:  And Peter got excellent care at the hospital, didn't he?
   M: Yes, he did. I guess I can't complain about the money we have paid for health insurance all these years.

   现在我们来听英文老师用慢速度把对话再念一遍.

   F:  Our health insurance bill came yesterday. The cost has increased again.
   M: Again? We have had two increases this year.
   F:  Medical care has been so expensive lately.
   M: Remember when Peter was in the hospital after his accident last year?
   F:  I sure  do. The  hospital bill for that  was over    three  thousand dollars; and how  much did the doctor charge us?
   M: I don't remember. But our insurance paid for all the bills.
   F:  And Peter got excellent care at the hospital, didn't he?
   M: Yes, he did. I guess I can't complain about the money we have paid for health insurance all these years.

   下面老师再把对话里的现在完成时态句子念一遍.

   F:  The cost has increased again.
   M: We have had two increases this year.
   F:  Medical care has been so expensive lately.
   M: I can't complain about the money we have paid for health insurance all these years.

二.现在完成式

   从上面那些句子你可以听出来, 现在完成时态是用 has 或是 have加上动词的过去分词构成的.  这种时态可以用来表示 "经验",比方 "我得过心脏病" I have had a heart attack 等等; 在问句里人们常常用 ever, e-v-e-r, ever    和现在完成时态问别人从过去到现在是不是有过某种经验,  比方:   "你输过血吗?" Have you ever had a blood transfusion?

   下面我们作一组代换练习, 学学这类句子.练习的作法是由老师问你一个问题,比方 "你检查过身体吗?" Have you ever had a health check-up?   接着老师念一个字或词, 比方 "验血" a blood test, 你就把这个词代换到原来的句子里.   在作练习的时候你可以学到不少跟医疗或疾病有关系的字或词,       比方  "手术" an operation, "X光" an x-ray, "癌症" cancer, "小儿麻痹"    polio,  "肺病" tuberculosis 等等. 现在我们开始作练习, 每作完一句, 老师就把正确答案念一遍给你听.

   M: Have you ever had a health check-up?
   M: a blood test
   F:  Have you ever had a blood test?
   M: a blood transfusion
   F:  Have you ever had a blood transfusion?
   M: an operation.
   F:  Have you ever had an operation?
   M: an x-ray
   F:  Have you ever had an x-ray?
   M: serious diseases
   F:  Have you ever had serious diseases?
   M: high blood pressure
   F:  Have you ever had high blood pressure?
   M: a heart attack
   F:  Have you ever had a heart attack?
   M: cancer
   F:  Have you ever had cancer?
   M: polio
   F:  Have you ever had polio?
   M: tuberculosis
   F:  Have you ever had tuberculosis?
   M: medical treatment
   F:  Have you ever had medical treatment?
   M: medical care
   F:  Have you ever had medical care?

   刚才那些问题都可以换一个方式问,   比方护士问亨利:   "你从来没有得过高血压,  不是吗?"  You have never had high blood pressure, have you?  就是一个例子.下面我们作一组练习,  一方面复习时态, 一方面复习我们刚才学的新词汇.请你注意听护士问亨利问题; 这些问题亨利都一一地作否定的答覆, 在亨利回答的时候, 请你也一起回答.

   F:  You have never had polio, have you?
   M: No, I've never had polio.
   F:  You have never had tuberculosis, have you?
   M: No, I've never had tuberculosis.
   F:  You have never had high blood pressure, have you?
   M: No, I've never had high blood pressure.
   F:  You have never had a heart attack, have you?
   M: No, I've never had a heart attack.
   F:  You have never had cancer, have you?
   M: No, I've never had cancer.
   F:  You have never had serious diseases, have you?
   M: No, I've never had serious diseases.
   F:  You have never had a long term illness, have you?
   M: No, I've never had a long term illness.

   下面我们作一组练习比较现在完成时态跟过去时态. 以前我们学过过去时态是用来表示在过去一个特定时间发生的事情; 而现在完成时态用来表示到目前已经发生的事情,  并不表明特定的时间.    在作下面这组练习的时候你会听到医生用现在完成时态问凯特作过某些事情没有, 这些问题凯特都一一的作肯定的答覆,  并且用过去时态补充说明事情发生的确定时间是 "上个月".  现在我们开始作练习,在凯特回答问题的时候也请你一起回答:

   M: You have had a health check-up lately, haven't you?
   F:  Yes, I have had a health check-up. I had it last month.
   M: You have had a blood test lately, haven't you?
   F:  Yes, I have had a blood test. I had it last month.
   M: You have had an x-ray lately, haven't you?
   F:  Yes, I have had an x-ray. I had it last month.
   M: You have had an operation lately, haven't you?
   F:  Yes, I have had an operation. I had it last month.
   M: You have had a blood transfusion lately, haven't you?
   F:  Yes, I have had a blood transfusion. I had it last month.

   下面一组练习还是比较过去时态和现在完成时态. 练习的内容是说到医学上的成就. 首先你会听到男老师念一个被动语态的过去时态句子,  比方:    "去年有许多人住院." Many people were hospitalized last year.  接着女老师就用现在完成时态把句子改成    "从那以后有更多人住院."  More people have been hospitalized since then.  这组练习里有些词汇你可能不太熟,    比方     "实验"experiment,   "技术"    technique,     "意外"   accident,   "避免"     prevent,  "成就"achievement 等等, 请你在听老师念句子的时候一面注意时态的变化,   一面注意这些词汇. 现在我们开始.

   M: Many people were hospitalized last year.
   F:  More people have been hospitalized since then.
   M: Many people were treated last year.
   F:  More people have been treated since then.
   M: Many people were saved last year.
   F:  More people have been saved since then.
   M: Medical experiments were done last year.
   F:  More medical experiments have been done since then.
   M: Modern techniques were learned last year.
   F:  More modern techniques have been learned since then.
   M: Some accidents were prevented last year.
   F:  More accidents have been prevented since then.
   M: A lot of patients were cured last year.
   F:  More patients have been cured since then.
   M: Several hospitals were built last year.
   F:  More hospitals have been built since then.
   M: Medical achievements were made last year.
   F:  More medical achievements have been made since then.

   现在我们再来复习现在完成时态. 下面一组练习是由老师用疑问词提出被动语态问句,接着老师念出一个词组,请你用老师给你的词组来回答问题. 每回答一句就请你听老师念正确答案.

   M: What have been done?
   M: medical experiments
   F:  Medical experiments have been done.
   M: What have been learned?
   M: modern techniques
   F:  Modern techniques have been learned.
   M: What have been prevented?
   M: some diseases
   F:  Some diseases have been prevented.
   M: What have been built?
   M: several hospitals
   F:  Several hospitals have been built.
   M: What have been made?
   M: medical achievements
   F:  Medical achievements have been made.

   在今天这一课的对话里, 亨利和凯特谈到了去年彼得住院的事情. 下面这组代 换练习的内容就是说到彼得去年在医院的时候, 那家医院设备非常好, 他的医药保险所包括的项目很周全等等.     练习的作法是老师先念一个句子,   接着老师提出一个名词或是形容词, 请你把你所听到的代换到句子里适当的地方. 在这一组练习里你可以学到一些有用的词汇,比方"医院设备"hospital equipment,"保险范围" insurance coverage, "保险费" insurance premium 等等. 现在我们开始作练习, 每作完一句还是请你听老师念正确答案.

   M: The hospital equipment was excellent.
   M: medical treatment
   F:  The medical treatment was excellent.
   M: insurance coverage
   F:  The insurance coverage was excellent.
   M: expensive
   F:  The insurance coverage was expensive.
   M: insurance policy
   F:  The insurance policy was expensive.
   M: doctor's fee
   F:  The doctor's fee was expensive.
   M: hospital's bill
   F:  The hospital's bill was expensive.
   M: paid
   F:  The hospital's bill was paid.
   M: last insurance premium
   F:  The last insurance premium was paid.

   下面一组代换练习的内容是说目前医药费上涨了, 医生和医院费用, 甚至健康保险费都提高了, 不过医院设施和医护人员也增加了. 请你在学生作代换练习的时候也还是一起作.

   M: Medical expenses have increased.
   M: doctor's fees
   F:  Doctor's fees have increased.
   M: hospital charges
   F:  Hospital charges have increased.
   M: health insurance costs
   F:  Health insurance costs have increased.
   M: hospital facilities
   F:  Hospital facilities have increased.
   M: hospital employees
   F:  Hospital employees have increased.

三.听短文回答问题

   今天我们要听的文章说到美国的医学成就和医药保险. 比方美国很多私人公司为员工设立了保健计划;    一般人也可以按月交保费给保险公司,  有大病的时候医药费用由保险公司来负责.另外还有一些大的医疗机构 办的健康保险,会员也是按月交保费, 有重病的时候就在医疗机构附设的医院治疗,   费用由医疗机构负责. 至于年老贫困的人, 政府也有医药照顾计划.现在请你注意听.

   Americans are proud of the medical achievements made in this country. Medical scientists have found cures and prevention for such diseases as  polio and tuberculosis.  They have learned a great deal about cancer and heart disease. Many lives have been saved. American hospitals are the most modern and best equiped medical facilities    in  the  world. But this degree of excellence has been expensive.  Medical costs in the United States are very  high. There  is no  national health plan for Americans. But  there  are many  programs available for this purpose.  Many people  have health plans at the companies  where they work.  Under these plans,  the company pays a fixed sum of  money regularly  into a  fund. Then when the employee needs medical help,he can use money from the fund to pay for it. Other  people  have  health  insurance. They  pay  insurance  premiums  each month  to insurance companies which then pay for medical expenses when they are needed. In  some  medical  plans,  the  insurance  company is also the medical institution. People regularly pay the hospital directly. Then when they need medical treatment, they go to  the hospital without paying more money. The government has health insurance programs for older people, poor people and  those with long term illness. These programs make medical care available to those without  their own health insurance.

   刚才那篇文章你都听懂了吗? 如果没有, 等一会儿你还有机会听. 现在老师先把今天测验的三个问题念一遍.

   第一个问题是:
   M: What have American medical scientists done?
   第二个问题是:
   M: How do Americans pay for health costs?
   第三个问题是:
   M: Who are helped by government health insurance programs?

   现在我们再听英文老师用慢速度把整篇文章念一遍,    请你特别注意刚才那三个问题的答案.

   Americans are proud of the medical achievements made in this country. Medical scientists have found cures and prevention for such diseases as  polio and tuberculosis.  They have learned a great deal about cancer and heart disease. Many lives have been saved. American hospitals are the most modern and best equiped medical facilities    in  the  world. But this degree of excellence has been expensive.  Medical costs in the United States are very  high. There  is no  national health plan for Americans. But  there  are many  programs available for this purpose.  Many people  have health plans at the companies  where they work.  Under these plans,  the company pays a fixed sum of  money regularly  into a  fund. Then when the employee needs medical help,he can use money from the fund to pay for it. Other  people  have  health  insurance. They  pay  insurance  premiums  each month  to insurance companies which then pay for medical expenses when they are needed. In  some  medical  plans,  the  insurance  company is also the medical institution. People regularly pay the hospital directly. Then when they need medical treatment, they go to  the hospital without paying more money. The government has health insurance programs for older people, poor people and  those with long term illness. These programs make medical care available to those without  their own health insurance.

   现在请你回答下面三个问题. 每回答一句就请你听老师念正确答案.

   第一个问题是:
   M: What have American medical scientists done?
   F:  They  have  found  cures  and  prevention    for  some  diseases and they  have  learned about others.

   第二个问题是:
   M: How do Americans pay for health costs?
   F:  They pay with health plans and health insurance.

   第三个问题是:
   M: Who are helped by government health insurance programs?
   F:  Older people, poor people and people with long term illness are helped.

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