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中级美国英语现在完成进行时态

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里,我们学习现在完成进行时态, 比方 "一直在玩" have been  playing."一直在学习" have been studying 等等.现在我们先来听今天这一课的对话,内容是说彼得和玛丽谈起电脑的事情. 请你注意听两位英文老师的发音和语调.

   F:  Peter, where have you been?
   M: I've been playing Pac Man at the Arcade in the student union.
   F:  Have you been wasting your time on those computer games again?
   M: Not really, Mary. I've been studying a lot this week and I need a break.
   F:  Why don't you buy a computer and some of those games? Then you can play at home.
   M: I have been looking at home computers.There are a lot of different kinds on market now.
   F:  I know, and they have been getting cheaper.
   M: How do you know that?
   F:  I've been thinking of buying a home computer too.

   现在英文老师再把对话用慢速度念一遍, 请你注意听.

   F:  Peter, where have you been?
   M: I've been playing Pac Man at the Arcade in the student union.
   F:  Have you been wasting your time on those computer games again?
   M: Not really, Mary. I've been studying a lot this week and I need a break.
   F:  Why don't you buy a computer and some of those games? Then you can play at home.
   M: I have been looking at home computers.There are a lot of different kinds on market now.
   F:  I know, and they have been getting cheaper.
   M: How do you know that?
   F:  I've been thinking of buying a home computer too.

   下面我请英文老师把对话里的现在完成进行时态句子再念一遍.

   M: I've been playing Pac Man at the Arcade in the student union.
   F:  Have you been wasting your time on those computer games again?
   M: I've been studying a lot this week.
   M: I have been looking at home computers.
   F:  They have been getting cheaper.
   F:  I've been thinking of buying a home computer too.

二.现在完成进行式

   听了上面的句子,    我想你或许已经注意到现在完成进行时态是用 has been 或是 have  been 和加了 i-n-g 的动词构成的.    这种时态是用来表示一个动作从过去一直持续到现在.现在我请英文老师念一些跟刚才那段对话有关系的现在完成进行时态句子,每个句子各念两遍, 请你听一遍, 跟着老师重复一遍.

   M: Peter has been taking computer courses this semester.
   F:  Peter has been taking computer courses this semester.
   M: Peter has been playing computer games this afternoon.
   F:  Peter has been playing computer games this afternoon.
   M: Mary has been thinking of buying a home computer recently.
   F:  Mary has been thinking of buying a home computer recently.
   M: Mary has been looking at home computers lately.
   F:  Mary has been looking at home computers lately.

   下面一组练习是由老师把刚才那些句子改成问句, 比方老师说: "彼得一直在学什么?"    What  has Peter  been studying? 接着老师说   "电脑程式"  computer programming,学生就回答说: Peter has been studying computer programming. 现在我们开始作练习, 学生回答问题的时候请你也一起回答.

   M: What has Peter been taking?
   M: computer courses
   F:  Peter has been taking computer courses.
   M: What has Peter been studying?
   M: computer programming
   F:  Peter has been studying computer programming.
   M: What has Peter been playing?
   M: computer games
   F:  Peter has been playing computer games.
   M: What has Mary been thinking of?
   M: buying a home computer
   F:  Mary has been thinking of buying a home computer.
   M: What has Mary been looking at?
   M: home computers
   F:  Mary has been looking at home computers.

   下面一组练习的内容是说现代电脑进步的情况, 比方:现在电脑比以前便宜,比以前有效率, 也比以前受欢迎等等. 练习的作法是由男老师用have  become 加上形容词比较级作句子, 比方: "电脑比以前实用了."     Computers have become more practical,  请你用 have been getting 加上形容词比较级把句子改成 "电脑越来越实用." Computers have been getting  more    practical.  现在我们开始作练习, 请你每作完一句就听老师念正确答案.

   M: Computers have become smaller.
   F:  Computers have been getting smaller.
   M: Computers have become better.
   F:  Computers have been getting better.
   M: Computers have become easier to use.
   F:  Computers have been getting easier to use.
   M: Computers have become cheaper.
   F:  Computers have been getting cheaper.
   M: Computers have become more economical.
   F:  Computers have been getting more economical.
   M: Computers have become more useful.
   F:  Computers have been getting more useful.
   M: Computers have become more practical.
   F:  Computers have been getting more practical.
   M: Computers have become more efficient.
   F:  Computers have been getting more efficient.
   M: Computers have become more convenient.
   F:  Computers have been getting more convenient.
   M: Computers have become more popular.
   F:  Computers have been getting more popular.

   刚才那组练习里有些形容词你可能不太熟,  比方 "经济实惠"   economical, "有效率" efficient  等等.  现在我们作一组代换练习, 一方面复习现在完成进行时态,一方面复习这些形容词. 请你在学生作代换练习的时候也一起作.

   M: Computers have been getting smaller.
   M: better
   F:  Computers have been getting better.
   M: more useful
   F:  Computers have been getting more useful.
   M: more practical
   F:  Computers have been getting more practical.
   M: more economical
   F:  Computers have been getting more economical.
   M: more efficient
   F:  Computers have been getting more efficient.
   M: more convenient
   F:  Computers have been getting more convenient.
   M: more popular
   F:  Computers have been getting more popular.

   下面一组练习的内容是说电脑的发展情况.    练习的作法是老师念一个被动语态的现在完成时态句子,比方 "更好的电脑已经设计出来了." Better computers have  been  designed.  接着老师念出名词,    也就是动作执行者,  比方   "技师" technicians,     请你用老师给你的名词把原来的句子改为现在完成时态的主动语态句子,     所以刚才那例子的答案就是:  "技师一直在设计更好的电脑. "Technicians have been designing better computers. 这组练习比较难, 所以你要特别注意. 每作完一句老师会念出正确答案,让你作个比较, 看你作对了没有.

   M: Small computers have been made.
   M: technicians
   F:  Technicians have been making small computers.
   M: Better computers have been designed.
   M: technicians
   F:  Technicians have been designing better computers.
   M: Computer science courses have been studied.
   M: many students
   F:  Many students have been studying computer science courses.
   M: Computer science courses have been taken.
   M: many students
   F:  Many students have been taking computer science courses.
   M: Home computers have been bought.
   M: a lot of people
   F:  A lot of people have been buying home computers.
   M: computers have been used at home.
   M: a lot of people
   F:  A lot of people have been using computers at home.

   下面一组练习的作法是老师念一个现在完成进行时态句子, 比方:  "人们一直用电脑来计算复杂的问题. "  People  have  been  using  computers  to compute complex problems.接着老师念出一个词组, 比方: "存放资料" store information,请你把老师提出的词组代换到原来的句子里,所以答案就是 People have been using computers to store information. 在这一组练习里你可以学到电脑的许多用途, 比方: "记录生意状况" record business, "与别人沟通"  communicate  with others,  "寄帐单给客户" send bills to customers, "记下存货数量"    keep records of inventories,  "记录开支数目"  keep  track    of  expenses, "开关电动器具" turn appliances on and off  等等.  这些词汇你可能不太熟,    请你作练习的时候特别注意听, 每作完一句就听老师再把正确答案念一遍.

   M: People have been using computers to compute complex problems.
   M: store information
   F:  People have been using computers to store information.
   M: record business
   F:  People have been using computers to record business.
   M: communicate with others
   F:  People have been using computers to communicate with others.
   M: send bills to customers
   F:  People have been using computers to send bills to customers
   M: keep records of inventories
   F:  People have been using computers to keep records of inventories.
   M: keep track of expenses
   F:  People have been using computers to keep track of expenses.
   M: turn their appliances on and off
   F:  People have been using computers to turn their appliances on and off.

   下面一组练习是由老师念一个现在时态问句,   比方:   Do people use computers for entertainment? 学生就用现在完成进行时态把句子改成     Have people been using computers for entertainment? 这组练习的内容还是说到电脑的用途.作这组练习一方面可以练习不同时态, 一方面也可以复习刚才学过的词汇.请你在学生作练习的时候也一起作.

   M: Do people use computers for entertainment?
   F:  Have people been using computers for entertainment?
   M: Do people use computers for communication?
   F:  Have people been using computers for communication?
   M: Do people use computers for inventories?
   F:  Have people been using computers for inventories?
   M: Do people use computers for record-keeping?
   F:  Have people been using computers for record-keeping?
   M: Do people use computers to store information?
   F:  Have people been using computers to store information?
   M: Do people use computers to compute complex problems?
   F:  Have people been using computers to compute complex problems?
   M: Do people use computers to send bills to customers?
   F:  Have people been using computers to send bills to customers?
   M: Do people use computers to keep track of expenses?
   F:  Have people been using computers to keep track of expenses?
   M: Do people use computers to turn their appliances on and off?
   F:  Have people been using computers to turn their appliances on and off?

三.听短文回答问题

   今天我们要听一篇关于电脑工业发展迅速的文章.这篇文章里有不少现在完成进行时态句子, 也有许多我们刚才练习过的词汇.请你注意听, 等一会儿老师要根据文章问你几个问题.

   The home computers industry has been growing rapidly in the United States for the last ten years.  Computers  used  to  be  large, expensive    machines  that  were very difficult to use. But  scientists  and  technicians  have been  making them smaller and cheaper while at the same  time  they  have  been  made  easier to  use.  As a  result, their popularity has been increasing as more people have been buying computers for their homes and businesses. Computers  have  been designed  to store  information and compute  complex problems. Some have voices that speak with the operators.  Stores use    computers  to keep records of their inventories and to send bills to their customers. Offices use computers to type letters, record business and communicate with other offices. People  have  been  using  computers in their  homes  to keep  track  of expenses and  turn appliances on and off. One  important  new  use  for  computers is for entertainment.  Many new games have been designed  to  be  played on  the  computers. People of  all  ages have  been playing these games. They have been going to Arcades where the computer games can be played  for a small cost. People also have been buying home computers to play computer games  at home.  They have become very popular indeed.

   刚才那篇文章你都听懂了吗? 如果没有, 不要着急, 等一会儿你还有机会听. 现在老师先把今天测验的问题念一遍给你听.

   第一个问题是:
   M: Why have computers been getting more popular?
   第二个问题是:
   M: How can computers be used?
   第三个问题是:
   M: Who has been playing computer games?

   现在老师再用慢速度把整篇文章念一遍.

   The home computers industry has been growing rapidly in the United States for the last ten years.  Computers  used  to  be  large, expensive    machines  that  were very difficult to use. But  scientists  and  technicians  have been  making them smaller and cheaper while at the same  time  they  have  been  made  easier to  use.  As a  result, their popularity has been increasing as more people have been buying computers for their homes and businesses. Computers  have  been designed  to store  information and compute  complex problems. Some have voices that speak with the operators.  Stores use    computers  to keep records of their inventories and to send bills to their customers. Offices use computers to type letters, record business and communicate with other offices. People  have  been  using  computers in their  homes  to keep  track  of expenses and  turn appliances on and off. One  important  new  use  for  computers is for entertainment.  Many new games have been designed  to  be  played on  the  computers. People of  all  ages have  been playing these games. They have been going to Arcades where the computer games can be played  for a small cost. People also have been buying home computers to play computer games  at home.  They have become very popular indeed.

   现在请你回答下面三个问题. 每回答一个问题就请你听老师念正确答案.

   第一个问题是:
   M: Why have computers been getting more popular?
   F:  It is because they are smaller, cheaper and easier to use.

   第二个问题是:
   M: How can computers be used?
   F:  They can be used to do any of the ten things mentioned in the reading.

   第三个问题是:
   M: Who has been playing computer games?
   F:  People of all ages have been playing computer games.

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