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中级美国英语间接引句(二)

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里, 我们继续学习怎么样引述别人或是自己以前说过的话.首先我们还是依照惯例, 听一段对话,    内容是说彼得转告凯特, 亨利打电话回家, 交待了一些什么事情. 请你特别注意英文老师的发音和语调.

   M: Mom, Dad called and said that he wouldn't be home for dinner.
   F:  Did he say why?
   M: Yes, he said that one of the men was sick and he was going to stay for the afternoon shift.
   F:  Did he say when he would be home?
   M: He didn't say. But he did say that he was tired. He had had a busy day.
   F:  Did he say why?
   M: He  said  that  there  had  been  a    big  fire  in  town and  it  had  taken   nearly   all morning to put it out.
   F:  I hope that he wasn't hurt.

   现在我们把整段对话再听一遍, 请你注意听.

   M: Mom, Dad called and said that he wouldn't be home for dinner.
   F:  Did he say why?
   M: Yes, he said that one of the men was sick and he was going to stay for the afternoon shift.
   F:  Did he say when he would be home?
   M: He didn't say. But he did say that he was tired. He had had a busy day.
   F:  Did he say why?
   M: He  said  that  there  had  been  a    big  fire  in  town and  it  had  taken   nearly   all morning to put it out.
   F:  I hope that he wasn't hurt.

   下面老师再把对话里的间接引句念一遍给你听.

   M: Dad said that he wouldn't be home for dinner.
   M: He said that one of the men was sick.
   F:  Did he say when he would be home?
   M: He did say that he was tired.
   M: He said that there had been a big fire in town.

二.间接引句复习

   从上面的几个句子你可以看出间接引句的一些规则,有一些我们在上一课已经学过; 有些我们今天要学.首先我们复习上一课教过的. 第一组练习是由彼得或是凯特说几句话,  然后由别人引述一遍, 请你注意听.

   M: Henry is going to stay for the afternoon shift.
   F:  Peter said that Henry was going to stay for the afternoon shift.
   M: He will be busy in the afternoon.
   F:  Peter said that Henry would be busy in the afternoon.
   M: He can't come home for dinner.
   F:  Peter said that Henry couldn't come home for dinner.
   F:  Is Henry tired?
   M: Kate asked if Henry was tired.
   F:  Is Henry hurt?
   M: Kate asked whether Henry was hurt.

三.引述疑问句

   听了上面一组练习, 我想你对我们上一课教过的间接引句已经有了印象, 尤其是怎么样引述问句. 现在我们来学习怎么样引述用疑问词.比方 "为什么" why,"哪儿" where, "什么时候" when 开头的疑问句. 如果有人问你:  "你什么时候下班?" When are you going to be off duty? 在引述这句话的时候你就应该这么说: Someone asked me  when I was going to be off duty.  请你注意,    因为有疑问词,所以在间接引句里疑问词代替了我们以前学过 if,    whether,  或是 that, 但是仍然必须把问句改为过去时态陈述句. 我再举一个例子, 比方有人问你:"怎么样才能作救火员?" How can one be a fire fighter?    在引述这句话的时候你就应该这么说: Someone asked me how one could be a fire fighter.现在我们作一组练习,学学这种说法.练习的作法是由凯特问一些有关亨利跟其他救火员的情况的问题, 然后学生就把凯特的话引述一遍. 在学生作练习的时候请你也一起作.

   F:  Why isn't Henry coming home for dinner?
   M: Kate asked why Henry wasn't coming home for dinner.
   F:  Why is he going to stay for the afternoon shift?
   M: Kate asked why Henry was going to stay for the afternoon shift.
   F:  Where is he?
   M: Kate asked where Henry was.
   F:  How is he?
   M: Kate asked how Henry was.
   F:  How are his fellow fire fighters?
   M: Kate asked how Henry's fellow fire fighters were.
   F:  When is he going to be off duty?
   M: Kate asked when Henry was going to be off duty.
   F:  When is he coming home?
   M: Kate asked when Henry was coming home.

   下面一组练习的内容是说彼得问母亲凯特怎么样才能够像父亲亨利一样作个救火员.  彼得提出了许多问题. 凯特都一一回答,   比方凯特告诉彼得作救火员必须小心, 镇静, 必须随时准备救火, 一有必要就得上夜班等等. 练习的作法是你会先听到一个疑问词开头的疑问句, 比方彼得问: How can one be a fire fighter? 听了之后请你把话引述一遍,所以答案就是: Peter asked how one could be a fire fighter. 如果你听到的不是问句, 而是陈述句, 比方凯特回答:   "他们需要小心, 镇静."   One needs to be careful and calm. 在引述的时候你就必须这么说: Kate answered that one needed to be careful and calm. 现在我们开始作练习,每作完一句, 就请你听老师念正确答案.

   M: How can one be a fire fighter?
   F:  Peter asked how one could be a fire fighter.
   F:  One needs to be careful and calm.
   M: Kate answered that one needed to be careful and calm.
   M: What are their duties?
   F:  Peter asked what their duties were.
   F:  They put out fire and rescue people.
   M: Kate answered that they put out fire and rescued people.
   M: When do they have to be ready to answer an alarm?
   F:  Peter asked when they had to be ready to answer an alarm.
   F:  They have to be ready at any hour of the day or night.
   M: Kate answered that they had to be ready at any hour of the day or night.
   M: How many shifts are there?
   F:  Peter asked how many shifts there were.
   F:  There are three shifts.
   M: Kate answered that there were three shifts.
   M: How often do they work the night shift?
   F:  Peter asked how often they worked the night shift.
   F:  They work the night shift as often as needed.
   M: Kate answered that they worked the night shift as often as needed.

   下面彼得问凯特作救火员危险不危险, 他们怎么救火; 怎么样帮助受伤的人等等问题; 凯特回答说救火员的工作有时候相当危险, 他们必须有救火设施, 必须给予受伤的人急救等等. 还是请你跟刚才一样作练习

   M: How dangerous is the job?
   F:  Peter asked how dangerous the job was.
   F:  It can be very dangerous at times.
   M: Kate answered that it could be very dangerous at times.
   M: How do they enter a burning building?
   F:  Peter asked how they entered a burning building.
   F:  They use the necessary equipment.
   M: Kate answered that they used the necessary equipment.
   M: How do they help injured people?
   F:  Peter asked how they helped the injured people.
   F:  They give those people first aid.
   M: Kate answered that they gave those people first aid.

   刚才我们引述的句子本身都是现在时态. 所以在引述的时候必须把动词或助动词改为过去时态. 如果你要引述的句子是现在完成时态或是过去时态,   那么在引述的时候就应该用had, h-a-d,had加上动词的过去分词或是用 had been 加上动词的过去分词把时态改为过去完成时态. 比方凯特问亨利:  "发生了什么事?" What happened?    在引述这句话的时候就应该这么说:Kate asked what had happened. 再举一个例子,  比方凯特问亨利:    "有多少人受伤情况严重?" How  many  people  were  in critical  condition? 引述那句话的时候就应该这么说: Kate asked  how many people had been in critical condition. 

  下面我们作一组练习,学学这种说法.练习的内容是说亨利救火之后回到家里, 凯特问他有关火灾的种种情况,比方受伤的人被送进哪家医院,多少楼房被烧坏或是全部烧毁,  火灾多久才被扑灭等等. 这些问题亨利都一一答覆. 练习的作法跟刚才一样,还是每作完一句就请你听正确答案.

   F:  What happened?
   M: Kate asked what had happened.
   M: There was a fire in town.
   F:  Henry answered that there had been a fire in town.
   F:  When did it happen?
   M: Kate asked when it had happened.
   M: It happened in the morning.
   F:  Henry answered that it had happened in the morning.
   F:  How many people were injured?
   M: Kate asked how many people had been injured.
   M: A lot of people were injured.
   F:  Henry answered that a lot of people had been injured.
   F:  How many people were in critical condition?
   M: Kate asked how many people had been in critical condition.
   M: Four people were in critical condition.
   F:  Henry answered that four people had been in critical condition.
   F:  Which hospital were they taken to?
   M: Kate asked which hospital they had been taken to.
   M: They were taken to the hospital downtown.
   F:  Henry answered that they had been taken to the hospital downtown.
   F:  How many buildings burned down?
   M: Kate asked how many buildings had burned down.
   M: None of the buildings burned down.
   F:  Henry answered that none of the buildings had burned down.
   F:  How many buildings were damaged?
   M: Kate asked how many buildings had been damaged.
   M: Three buildings were damaged.
   F:  Henry answered that three buildings had been damaged.
   F:  How long did it take to put out the fire?
   M: Kate asked how long it had taken to put out the fire.
   M: It took three hours to put out the fire.
   F:  Henry answered that it had taken three hours to put out the fire.

四.听短文回答问题

   今天我们要听的文章是说亨利在西雅图市政府作救火员,    文章里除了谈到救火员的责任,   比方如何随时准备救火,    还提到救火员必须要冒着危险进入燃烧中的房屋去救人, 有的时候接到火警赶到现场才发现有人谎报等等.文章最后一段还说到凯特对亨利作救火员有什么感想.现在请你注意听.

   Henry is an employee of the city of Seattle.  He is one of more than 2,000 fire fighters there. Seattle had a  major  fire  nearly 100 years ago when most of the city burned to the ground. Henry and his fellow fire fighters don't  want that to happen again. Henry  is on duty eight  hours a  day. During  his shift, he eats and sleeps at the fire house. Fire fighters  have to be ready to answer an alarm at any hour of the day or  night. Most  of the alarms are for  small fires  which  can be put out in a few minutes.  There  are also a few    fake alarms, when the  fire  fighters arrive to find that there isn't  any fire  at  all.  Big fires are very  dangerous. Most of  the time  the greatest danger comes from smoke.   Sometimes, Henry  has  to  enter  burning  buildings to rescue  people  inside. He  has been  in serious danger many times to save people's lives. Kate is proud of Henry for his work, but she  worries  about his  safety.  Henry feels  that his job  isn't  dangerous  if  he  is  careful and  stays  calm. He  also needs to stay  in  good shape too.

   刚才那篇文章如果你不能全部听懂, 等一会儿你还有机会听. 现在我们先把今天测验的问题念一遍.

   第一个问题是:
   M: Why do fire fighters have to work the night shift?
   第二个问题是:
   M: What do fire fighters do?
   第三个问题是:
   M: How does Kate feel about Henry's job?

   现在我们再听英文老师用慢速度把整篇文章念一遍. 听完之后, 我们要请你回答刚才念的三个问题.

   Henry is an employee of the city of Seattle.  He is one of more than 2,000 fire fighters there. Seattle had a  major  fire  nearly 100 years ago when most of the city burned to the ground. Henry and his fellow fire fighters don't  want that to happen again. Henry  is on duty eight  hours a  day. During  his shift, he eats and sleeps at the fire house. Fire fighters  have to be ready to answer an alarm at any hour of the day or  night. Most  of the alarms are for  small fires  which  can be put out in a few minutes.  There  are also a few    fake alarms, when the  fire  fighters arrive to find that there isn't  any fire  at  all.  Big fires are very  dangerous. Most of  the time  the greatest danger comes from smoke.   Sometimes, Henry  has  to  enter  burning  buildings to rescue  people  inside. He  has been  in serious danger many times to save people's lives. Kate is proud of Henry for his work, but she  worries  about his  safety.  Henry feels  that his job  isn't  dangerous  if  he  is  careful and  stays  calm. He  also needs to stay  in  good shape too.

   现在请你回答下面三个问题. 回答之后请你听老师念正确答案.

   第一个问题是:
   M: Why do fire fighters have to work the night shift?
   F:  It is because they have to be ready to answer an alarm day and night.

   第二个问题是:
   M: What do fire fighters do?
   F:  They put out fire and rescue people.

   第三个问题是:
   M: How does Kate feel about Henry's job?
   F:  She is proud of Henry for his work, but she worries about his safety.

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