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中级美国英语与选举有关的词汇

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里, 我们要学习几个由动词和介词构成的常用语, 比方 "竞选" run for, r-u-n f-o-r, run for,  "依赖" depend on, d-e-p-e-n-d o-n, depend on, "参预"  take part in, t-a-k-e p-a-r-t i-n, take part in 等等. 我们也要学习许多跟选举有关系的词汇.现在我们先来听今天这一课的对话,     内容是说亨利跟同事南希谈起竞选话动的事情. 请你注意听两位英文老师的发音和语调.

   F:  Are you going to vote today, Henry?
   M: I don't think so. There aren't any candidates I'm interested in.
   F:  Haven't you kept up on the issues?
   M: I've seen the ads on TV, but I'm not up on what's going on.
   F:  You  should  be,  you  know. This  is an  important  election.  And  a  friend    of  mine  is running for office.
   M: That's why you've been bringing in all the campaign buttons.
   F:  Yes, Joe  Brown  is  a  really  good    candidate.  He has taken part in a lot of community activities and he knows what needs to be done.
   M: And you would vote for him even if you weren't friends, right?
   F:  Right!

   现在我们来听老师用慢速度把整段对话念一遍.

   F:  Are you going to vote today, Henry?
   M: I don't think so. There aren't any candidates I'm interested in.
   F:  Haven't you kept up on the issues?
   M: I've seen the ads on TV, but I'm not up on what's going on.
   F:  You  should  be,  you  know. This  is    an  important  election.    And  a  friend    of  mine  is running for office.
   M: That's why you've been bringing in all the campaign buttons.
   F:  Yes, Joe  Brown  is  a  really  good    candidate.  He has taken part in a lot of community activities and he knows what needs to be done.
   M: And you would vote for him even if you weren't friends, right?
   F:  Right!

   现在老师把对话里包含了我们今天要学的常用语的句子挑出来, 再念一遍给你听.

   M: There aren't any candidates I'm interested in.
   F:  Haven't you kept up on the issues?
   M: I'm not up on what's going on.
   F:  A friend of mine is running for office.
   M: You've been bringing in all the campaign buttons.
   F:  He has taken part in a lot of community activities.

二.RUN FOR

   听完了对话, 现在我们来练习对话里包含的常用语.    首先我们学习怎么用 run for 作句子.  比方有一句话:  "有些律师在竞选总统."     这句话英文可以这样说:Some lawyers are running for the presidency.

    下面我们作一组代换练习,学学这种说法. 在这一组练习里你可以学习到其他公职的名称, 比方市政会, 郡委会等等.现在我们开始作练习. 请你在学生作练习的时候也一起作.

   M: Some lawyers are running for the presidency.
   M: congressional office
   F:  Some lawyers are running for the congressional office
   M: governor's office
   F:  Some lawyers are running for the governor's office.
   M: mayor's office
   F:  Some lawyers are running for the mayor's office.
   M: city council
   F:  Some lawyers are running for the city council.
   M: county board
   F:  Some lawyers are running for the county board.

三.DEPEND ON

   刚才我们作的几组练习都是有关竞选的事情. 下面我们作一组代换练习, 看看在美国参加竞选的人必须依赖谁的帮助才能够当选.    练习的作法是老师念一个句子, 比方: "候选人依赖竞选委员会主管人员来赢得选举."  The candidates depend on their campaign managers to win the election. 你跟着重复一遍, 接着老师念出一些助选人员的名称, 比方 "竞选顾问"  campaign advisors, "演讲稿撰写人"  speech writers,   "竞选工作人员"    campaign staff.  "支持者" supporters等等, 请你把你听到的代换到原来的句子里. 每作完一句就请你听老师念正确答案.

   M: The candidates depend on their campaign managers to win the election.
   M: campaign advisors
   F:  The candidates depend on their campaign advisors to win the election.
   M: speech writers
   F:  The candidates depend on their speech writers to win the election.
   M: campaign staff
   F:  The candidates depend on their campaign staff to win the election.
   M: supporters
   F:  The candidates depend on their supporters to win the election.

四.BE INTERESTED IN

   在上面那组练习里我们学习了怎么用 "依赖" depend on 作句子,下面我们要学习用interested in, i-n-t-e-r-e-s-t-e-d i-n, interested in,再加上动名词词组来表示对什么什么感兴趣. 比方有一句话: "有些候选人对制造就业机会有兴趣."     这句话英文应该这样说:Some candidates are interested in creating job opportunities.下面我们作一组代换练习, 一方面学习 to be interested in 的用法, 一方面学一学候选人所感兴趣的政治问题,比方 "争取女权" getting equal rights for women."对抗贪污" fighting corruption. "平衡政府预算"    balancing  government  budget,"削减联邦政府规模"cutting the size of the federal government, "改善教育计划"improving educational programs 等等. 现在我们开始练习.

   M: Some candidates are interested in creating job opportunities.
   M: getting equal rights for women
   F:  Some candidates are interested in getting equal rights for women.
   M: fighting corruption
   F:  Some candidates are interested in fighting corruption.
   M: balancing government budget
   F:  Some candidates are interested in balancing government budget.
   M: cutting the size of the federal government
   F:  Some candidates are interested in cutting the size of the federal government.
   M: improving educational programs
   F:  Some candidates are interested in improving educational programs.

五.TAKE PART IN

   下面我们作一组练习, 学一学 "参与" take part in 的用法.   首先由老师提出问题, 然后学生作肯定的答覆. 练习的内容还是跟政治活动有关系. 在学生作练习的时候请你也一起作.

   M: Did he take part in creating job opportunities?
   F:  Yes, he took part in creating job opportunities.
   M: Did he take part in getting equal rights for women?
   F:  Yes, he took part in getting equal rights for women.
   M: Did he take part in fighting corruption?
   F:  Yes, he took part in fighting corruption.
   M: Did he take part in balancing government budget?
   F:  Yes, he took part in balancing government budget.
   M: Did he take part in cutting the size of the federal government?
   F:  Yes, he took part in cutting the size of the federal government.
   M: Did he take part in improving educational programs?
   F:  Yes, he took part in improving educational programs.

六.TAKE SIDES ON

   在下面一组练习里我们要学习用 take sides on,  t-a-k-e    s-i-d-e-s o-n,  take sides on 来表达在各种不同政治军事等问题上表明立场.比方 "候选人应该在男女平权问题上表明立场吗?"  这句话英文应该这样说:    Should   the  candidates  take sides on the issue of equal rights?在下面这组练习里除了可以练习  take  sides  on 的用法, 还可以学到许多有用的词汇, 比方: "民权" civil rights, "保护环境" environmental protection,   "国防预算" defense budget, "核子能源" nuclear energy, "核武器" nuclear weapons 等等.请你注意听老师问问题, 并且跟学生一起作肯定的答覆.

   M: Should the candidates take sides on the issue of equal rights?
   F:  Yes, they should take sides on the issue of equal rights.
   M: Should the candidates take sides on the issue of civil rights?
   F:  Yes, they should take sides on the issue of civil rights.
   M: Should the candidates take sides on the issue of environmental protection?
   F:  Yes, they should take sides on the issue of environmental protection.
   M: Should the candidates take sides on the issue of defense budget?
   F:  Yes, they should take sides on the issue of defense budget.
   M: Should the candidates take sides on the issue of nuclear energy?
   F:  Yes, they should take sides on the issue of nuclear energy.
   M: Should the candidates take sides on the issue of nuclear weapons?
   F:  Yes, they should take sides on the issue of nuclear weapons.

七.KEEP UP ON

   刚才那组练习里的许多词汇如果你还不太熟, 现在我们再作一组代换练习, 复习一下, 不过这次我们换一个动词词组,这次我们用 keep up on, k-e-e-p u-p o-n, keep up on 来表示选民应该对各种与选举有关的问题随时注意.

   M: Voters should keep up on the issue of civil rights.
   M: defense budget
   F:  Voters should keep up on the issue of defense budget.
   M: nuclear energy
   F:  Voters should keep up on the issue of nuclear energy.
   M: nuclear weapons
   F:  Voters should keep up on the issue of nuclear weapons.
   M: environmental protection
   F:  Voters should keep up on the issue of environmental protection.

八.APPEAL TO

   下面我们作最后一组练习, 学学怎么用 appeal to, a-p-p-e-a-l t-o, appeal to 表达立场不同的政治家受不同选民的欢迎. 比方  "有些政治家受劳工的欢迎."这句话英文应该这样说: Some politicians appeal to laborers,     在这组练习里你还可以学到其他有用的词汇, 比方 "女权运动者"    feminists,"退伍军人" veterans,"少数民族" minority groups,  "犹太后裔美国人"     Jewish Americans, "西班牙后裔美国人" Hispanic Americans.现在我们开始作代换练习.

   M: Some politicians appeal to businessmen.
   M: laborers
   F:  Some politicians appeal to laborers.
   M: feminists
   F:  Some politicians appeal to feminists.
   M: veterans
   F:  Some politicians appeal to veterans.
   M: minority groups
   F:  Some politicians appeal to minority groups.
   M: Jewish Americans
   F:  Some politicians appeal to Jewish Americans.
   M: Hispanic Americans
   F:  Some politicians appeal to Hispanic Americans.

九.听短文回答问题

   今天我们要听的文章内容是说美国的选举制度, 说到怎么样从事竞选活动.文章里的词汇都是我们已经练习过的.现在请你注意听.

   Top  officials  in  city, state and federal governments are elected  to office by the  people. They run for office every  two  or four years  and  elections  are  held the   first   week  of November. People who run for elections are called politicians.  Many of    them are lawyers. Successful politicians are often famous and important people in their communities. Young lawyers who are interested in politics often  join  political clubs when they graduate from  law  school.  As club members, they help  older  politicians get elected.  When they have  had enough  experience  and support,  they run  for office themselves.  Before elections,  political  candidates  are  very  busy. They have frequent  meetings  with  their supporters.  But  most  of  their  time  is spent  campaigning,  shaking  hands and  making speeches to the public. There  are  different  groups of  voters  that    politicians try  to  win support  from.  Most large cities  have  black  and  Spanish  speaking    communities who  elect   powerful  politicians. Some   politicians   appeal  to businessmen while others  appeal to laborers.  Many politicians run for office by taking sides on important issues such as balancing government budget, getting equal rights for women, fighting corruption and creating    job opportunities. Once politicians win elections, their futures depend on how well they do their jobs, and how well the people hear of the work they are doing.

   现在老师把今天测验的三个问题先念一遍给你听.

   第一个问题是:
   M: How often are elections held in the United States?
   第二个问题是:
   M: What do political candidates do to get elected?
   第三个问题是:
   M: What are some of the important political issues?

   现在我们听老师用慢速度再把文章念一遍.

   Top  officials  in  city, state and federal governments are elected  to office by the  people. They run for office every  two  or four years  and  elections  are  held the   first   week  of November. People who run for elections are called politicians.  Many of    them are lawyers. Successful politicians are often famous and important people in their communities. Young lawyers who are interested in politics often  join  political clubs when they graduate from  law  school.  As club members, they help  older  politicians get elected.  When they have  had enough  experience  and support,  they run  for office themselves.  Before elections,  political  candidates  are  very  busy. They have frequent  meetings  with  their supporters.  But  most  of  their  time  is spent  campaigning,  shaking  hands and  making speeches to the public. There  are  different  groups of  voters  that    politicians try  to  win support  from.  Most large cities  have  black  and  Spanish  speaking    communities who  elect   powerful  politicians. Some   politicians   appeal  to businessmen while others  appeal to laborers.  Many politicians run for office by taking sides on important issues such as balancing government budget, getting equal rights for women, fighting corruption and creating    job opportunities. Once politicians win elections, their futures depend on how well they do their jobs, and how well the people hear of the work they are doing.

   现在请你回答下面三个问题.    每回答一个问题老师会念出正确答案让你作个比较,  看你答对了没有.

   第一个问题是:
   M: How often are elections held in the United States?
   F:  They are held every two or four years.

   第二个问题是:
   M: What do political candidates do to get elected?
   F:  They campaign, shake hands and make speeches to the public.

   第三个问题是:
   M: What are some of the important political issues?
   F:  They  are  balancing  government   budget,     getting  equal  rights  for  women,      fighting corruption and creating job opportunities

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