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中级美国英语动词不定式(一)

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里, 我们学习动词加上 to, t-o, to    再加上另外一个动词的用法, 比方"拒绝参加" refuse to join, "要求得到" demand to get 等等. 我们还要学习许多关于工会的词汇.

   首先我们来听今天这一课的对话,内容是说凯特和他的同事比尔谈起了参加教师工会的事情, 请你注意听两位英文老师的发音和语调.

   F:  Are you going to the union meeting tonight?
   M: No, I refused to join a union. It's not professional.
   F:  I used  to think  that  way, but  not anymore. The union  is  here to stay, and I think  it is a good thing.
   M: Why do we need to have a union?
   F:  They communicate our views to the school board.
   M: They demand to get more money and lighter workloads.
   F:  They work to get better learning situations for our students.
   M: Like what?
   F:  They managed to get the school board to control class size and offer more courses.
   M: Yes, they were helpful in those cases, but I still don't want to join the union.

   现在我请英文老师用慢速度再把整段对话念一遍.

   F:  Are you going to the union meeting tonight?
   M: No, I refused to join a union. It's not professional.
   F:  I used  to  think  that  way, but  not anymore. The  union  is here to stay, and I think  it is a good thing.
   M: Why do we need to have a union?
   F:  They communicate our views to the school board.
   M: They demand to get more money and lighter workloads.
   F:  They work to get better learning situations for our students.
   M: Like what?
   F:  They managed to get the school board to control class size and offer more courses.
   M: Yes, they were helpful in those cases, but I still don't want to join the union.

   下面我们再把对话里包含了今天要学的语法的句子挑出来, 用慢速度念一遍给你听.

   M: I refuse to join a union. I don't want to join the union.
   F:  I used to think that way.
   M: Why do we need to have a union?
   M: They demand to get more money.
   F:  They work to get better learning situations.
   F:  They managed to get the school board to control class size.

二.NEED TO

   听了上面那些句子, 我想你已经注意到用 to 连接的两个动词可以用来说明同一个主语. 现在我们作几组练习, 多学学这类动词词组. 首先我们学习 need to have. 比方  "工人需要减轻工作量."    这句话英文可以这样说: Workers need to have lighter workloads.

   下面英文老师用 need to  have 作一些句子, 说明工人需要有什么, 比方 "较高的工资"  higher  wages, "小额优惠" fringe benefits,  "职业保障"  job protection, "退休金" retirement pension,"工会代表" union representatives 等等. 你注意听老师念句子, 并且跟着学生把句子重复一遍.

   M: Workers need to have higher wages.
   F:  Workers need to have higher wages.
   M: Workers need to have better working conditions.
   F:  Workers need to have better working conditions.
   M: Workers need to have more fringe benefits.
   F:  Workers need to have more fringe benefits.
   M: Workers need to have job protection.
   F:  Workers need to have job protection.
   M: Workers need to have retirement pension.
   F:  Workers need to have retirement pension.
   M: Workers need to have unions.
   F:  Workers need to have unions.
   M: Workers need to have representatives.
   F:  Workers need to have representatives.

三.DEMAND TO GET, ARE ALLOWED TO 和 WANT TO

   刚才那些新词汇如果你还不太熟没有关系. 现在我们作一组代换练习把这些词汇练习一下;   不过这次我请英文老师用 "需要得到" demand to get 作句子.练习的作法是老师念一个句子, 接着老师念出一个词组,     学生就把词组代换到原来的句子里. 在学生作练习的时候, 请你也一起作.

   M: Workers demand to get higher wages.
   M: better working conditions
   F:  Workers demand to get better working conditions.
   M: more fringe benefits
   F:  Workers demand to get more fringe benefits.
   M: job protection
   F:  Workers demand to get job protection.
   M: retirement pension
   F:  Workers demand to get retirement pension.
   M: lighter workloads
   F:  Workers demand to get lighter workloads

   下面我们练习用 are allowed to 加上另外一个动词作一些被动语态句子,说明美国法律准许工人作什么事,   比方  "组织工会"     form a union,     "表示意见"express opinions,   "组织罢工"  organize a strike,   "跟资方讨价还价"  bargain with the management 等等. 老师念第一个句子之后,     接着老师会念出一些词组,请你把你听到的代换到原来的句子里. 每作完一句, 老师会把句子再念一遍给你听. 我们现在开始.

   M: Workers are allowed to form a union.
   M: select their representatives
   F:  Workers are allowed to select their representatives.
   M: express their opinions
   F:  Workers are allowed to express their opinions.
   M: organize a strike
   F:  Workers are allowed to organize a strike.
   M: bargain with the management
   F:  Workers are allowed to bargain with the management.

   下面我们用  want  to 加上另外一个动词作一些句子, 学学工会要作些什么事情. 在这组练习里你不但可以复习语法,    也可以学到一些有用的词汇,   比方"改善"  improve,  "磋商"  negotiate,    "吸收新会员"  recruit new members 等等.现在请你注意听老师念句子,    每念完一句就请你跟着学生一起把句子重复一遍.

   M: The unions want to represent workers.
   F:  The unions want to represent workers.
   M: The unions want to recruit new members.
   F:  The unions want to recruit new members.
   M: The unions want to improve workers' working situations.
   F:  The unions want to improve workers' working situations.
   M: The unions want to negotiate with the management.
   F:  The unions want to negotiate with the management.
   M: The unions want to communicate with the management.
   F:  The unions want to communicate with the management.

四.REFUSE TO, MANAGE TO等等

   下面我们作一组练习, 学学怎么用 refuse to 加上另外一个动词来说明拒绝作什么事. 练习的作法是老师提出一些有关劳资双方讨价还价的问题,     比方老师问你: "资方拒绝妥协了吗?" Did the management refuse to compromise?  接着老师说:  No,  你就回答说:  No, they didn't refuse to compromise.   老师也许问你:"资方拒绝雇更多人吗?"Did the management refuse to hire more people?接着老师说: Yes,那么你就回答说: Yes, they refused to hire more people.   在这组练习里, 你还可以学到其他有用的词汇, 比方 "讨论" discuss, "减轻工作量" reduce workloads,  "加薪" raise salaries 等等. 现在我们开始作练习, 每作完一句就请你听老师念正确答案.

   M: Did the management refuse to discuss with the union?
   M: No
   F:  No, they didn't refuse to discuss.
   M: Did the management refuse to compromise?
   M: No
   F:  No, they didn't refuse to compromise.
   M: Did the management refuse to reduce the workloads?
   M: Yes
   F:  Yes, they refused to reduce the workloads.
   M: Did the management refuse to hire more people?
   M: Yes
   F:  Yes, they refused to hire more people.
   M: Did the management refuse to raise the salaries?
   M: No
   F:  No, they didn't refuse to raise the salaries.

   下面我们用 managed  to 作一些过去时态句子, 说明工会设法作了什么事.  练习的作法是老师念一个句子,   比方:      "工会设法吸收了新会员."    The unions managed to recruit  new  members. 接着老师提出一个词组,     比方 "充实力量"gain strength, "获得效率" gain effectiveness,     "争取更好的合同"    get a better contract 等等, 学生就把他听到的词组代换到原来的句子里, 在学生作练习的时候请你也一起作.

   M: The unions managed to recruit new members.
   M: gain strength
   F:  The unions managed to gain strength.
   M: gain effectiveness
   F:  The unions managed to gain effectiveness.
   M: organize a strike
   F:  The unions managed to organize a strike.
   M: negotiate with the management
   F:  The unions managed to negotiate with the management.
   M: communicate workers' views to the management
   F:  The unions managed to communicate workers' views to the management.
   M: get a good contract
   F:  The unions managed to get a good contract.

   下面我们作一组综合练习, 用不同动词词组学学美国劳资双方怎么解决彼此之间的歧见.在这组练习里你可以练习几个很有用的动词,比方 "同意" agree,"威胁" threaten, "合作" cooperate 等等. 练习的作法是老师用疑问词提出一个问题,  接着老师念出一个词组,    请你用老师给你的词组来回答问题.  每作完一句, 就请你听老师念正确答案.

   M: What did workers want to do?
   M: get higher wages
   F:  Workers wanted to get higher wages.
   M: What did they begin to do ?
   M: organize a union
   F:  They began to organize a union.
   M: What did the union manage to do?
   M: bargain with the management
   F:  The union managed to bargain with the management.
   M: What did the union threaten to do?
   M: organize a strike
   F:  The union threatened to organize a strike.
   M: What did the management agree to do?
   M: cooperate with the union
   F:  The management agreed to cooperate with the union.
   M: What did the management decide to do?
   M: raise workers' salaries
   F:  The management decided to raise the workers' salaries.

五.听短文回答问题

   今天我们要听一篇介绍美国工会的文章. 这篇文章不但提到工会成立的经过,也谈到了什么是 "集体谈判" collective bargaining.现在请你注意听.

   Nearly 100 years ago,  America's  working people began to join together  to  improve  their wages and their working situations. They formed unions.  The unions  presented  a  united position among workers in discussions with owners of businesses and factories. This idea became known as collective bargaining. Unions were started at separate local factories. Slowly unions in several factories  started to  join  together.  As  they  gained   size,   the  unions  were  able  to gain  strength   and effectiveness. By the 1950's unions were successfully  representing their members in most American industries. Unions began  as  organizations  for factory   workers. Later   skilled  workers  such  as electricians and plumbers organized into unions. Recently professional people have also begun to form unions.   Many teachers and nurses, for example, belong to unions.   Today the largest unions have several million members. The unions not  only represent  the  workers  in discussions  with   business  management. They  also  train  workers  for  jobs,  give  members money  if  they lose their jobs, and pay workers pensions when they retire.  In  many  situations, a  person  is not allowed to take a job unless he belongs to the union. Unions have  become  established   institutions  of American   industry.  Unions  and management have learned to work  for the benefit of both workers and owners.

   现在我们先把今天测验的问题听一遍.

   第一个问题是:
   M: Why do American workers join unions?
   第二个问题是:
   M: What do unions do nowadays?
   第三个问题是:
   M: Are there professional unions in the United States?

   现在我们再听英文老师用慢速度把整篇文章念一遍.

   Nearly 100 years ago,  America's  working people began to join together  to  improve  their wages and their working situations. They formed unions.  The unions  presented  a  united position among workers in discussions with owners of businesses and factories. This idea became known as collective bargaining. Unions were started at separate local factories. Slowly unions in several factories  started to  join  together.  As  they  gained   size,   the  unions  were  able  to gain  strength   and effectiveness. By the 1950's unions were successfully  representing their members in most American industries. Unions began  as  organizations  for factory   workers. Later   skilled  workers  such  as electricians and plumbers organized into unions. Recently professional people have also begun to form unions.   Many teachers and nurses, for example, belong to unions.   Today the largest unions have several million members. The unions not  only represent  the  workers  in discussions  with   business  management. They  also  train  workers  for  jobs,  give  members money  if  they lose their jobs, and pay workers pensions when they retire.  In  many  situations, a  person  is not allowed to take a job unless he belongs to the union. Unions have  become  established   institutions  of American   industry.  Unions  and management have learned to work  for the benefit of both workers and owners.

   现在请你回答你刚才听过的三个问题. 每回答一个问题,老师就会念出正确答案让你作个比较, 看你是不是答对了.    只要意思答对了就行, 不一定要每个字跟老师的说法一样. 现在我们开始.

   第一个问题是:
   M: Why do American workers join unions?
   F:  They join unions to improve their wages and working situations.

   第二个问题是:
   M: What do unions do nowadays?
   F:  They represent the workers, train them for jobs, give unemployed members money and pay retirement pensions.

   第三个问题是:
   M: Are there professional unions in the United States?
   F:  Yes, there are.

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