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中级美国英语动词不定式(二)

所属教程:中级美国英语

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里, 我们学习动词加上宾语再加上动词不定式的用法, 比方 "用信用卡买" use credit cards to buy. "准许你用" permit you to use 等等,   我们还要谈一谈美国人怎么用信用卡代替现钱来买东西. 

   首先我们听一段对话,内容是说凯特跟亨利谈起了用信用卡的事情. 请你注意两位英文老师的发音和语调. 

   F:  I am happy I started carrying the credit card that the bank gave us. 
   M: Why is that, Kate? Did you use it to buy something? 
   F:  I sure did. On the way home I stopped at the store to buy some beef   for dinner.  I  forgot that I didn't have any cash with me. 
   M: And they permitted you to pay with the card? 
   F:  Yes. They didn't even ask me to give them identification. 
   M: We have to be careful. If we lose them and someone finds them, the bank will charge us for what they buy. 
   F:  How much has the bank authorized us to spend with the card? 
   M: Fifteen  hundred  dollars. The  bank  encourages   us  to  use  the  card, but  they will also require us to pay them back. 
   F: You are right, Henry. I'll remember that.But the card sure makes it easy   to spend money. 

   现在我们听两位老师用慢速度再把整段对话再念一遍. 

   F:  I am happy I started carrying the credit card that the bank gave us. 
   M: Why is that, Kate? Did you use it to buy something? 
   F:  I sure did. On the way home I stopped at the store to buy some beef   for dinner.  I  forgot that I didn't have any cash with me. 
   M: And they permitted you to pay with the card? 
   F:  Yes. They didn't even ask me to give them identification. 
   M: We have to be careful. If we lose them and someone finds them, the bank will charge us for what they buy. 
   F:  How much has the bank authorized us to spend with the card? 
   M: Fifteen  hundred  dollars. The  bank  encourages   us  to  use  the  card, but  they will also require us to pay them back. 
   F: You are right, Henry. I'll remember that.But the card sure makes it easy   to spend money. 

   下面我把对话里包含了今天要学的语法的句子挑出来, 请英文老师再念一遍给你听. 
   M: Did you use it to buy something? 
   M: And they permitted you to pay with the card? 
   F:  They didn't ask me to give them identification. 
   F:  How much has the bank authorized us to spend with the card? 
   M: The bank encourages us to use the card. 
   M: They will also require us to pay them back. 

二.动词加宾语再加动词不定式

   听了上面那些句子,  你可能觉得今天要学的语法并不难, 不过句子里有些词汇,  比方 "准许" permit, "授权"authorize. "鼓励" encourage  等等你或许觉得有点儿生疏. 现在我们作第一组练习, 一方面学习语法,一方面记词汇. 我请英文老师根据刚才那段对话念一些句子.   这些句子都跟凯特用信用卡有关系.   比方   "银行规定她必须有储蓄账户."     The  bank  requires  her  to have a saving account.  "银行可能要她付利息" The bank may ask her to pay interest.等等. 你先注意听男老师念句子, 然后跟着女老师把句子重复一遍. 

   M: The bank allowed Kate to use a credit card. 
   F:  The bank allowed Kate to use a credit card. 
   M: The bank permitted her to charge with it. 
   F:  The bank permitted her to charge with it. 
   M: The bank authorized her to spend 15 hundred dollars with it. 
   F:  The bank authorized her to spend 15 hundred dollars with it. 
   M: The bank requires her to have a saving account. 
   F:  The bank requires her to have a saving account. 
   M: The bank encourages her to use it. 
   F:  The bank encourages her to use it. 
   M: The bank will ask her to pay the money back. 
   F:  The bank will ask her to pay the money back. 
   M: The bank may ask her to pay interest. 
   F:  The bank may ask her to pay interest. 

   下面我们再作一组练习把语法和词汇重复练习一遍. 练习的作法是老师用疑问词提出问句, 比方 What did the bank permit Kate to use? 接着老师念一个词组,   比方 a  credit  card,   学生就用词组来回答问题,  所以答案就是 The bank  permitted Kate to use a credit card. 现在我们开始作练习.在学生回答问题的时候请你也一起回答.  

   M: What did the bank permit Kate to use? 
   M: a credit card 
   F:  The bank permitted Kate to use a credit card. 
   M: What did the bank allow her to do with it? 
   M: charge with it 
   F:  The bank allowed her to charge with it. 
   M: How much money did the bank authorize her to spend? 
   M: 15 hundred dollars 
   F:  The bank authorized her to spend 15 hundred dollars. 
   M: What does the bank require her to have? 
   M: a saving account 
   F:  The bank requires her to have a saving account. 
   M: What does the bank encourage her to do? 
   M: use the credit card 
   F:  The bank encourages her to use the credit card. 
   M: What will the bank ask her to do? 
   M: pay the money back 
   F:  The bank will ask her to pay the money back. 
   M: What may the bank ask her to pay? 
   M: interest 
   F:  The bank may ask her to pay interest. 

   从刚才作的练习里我们可以知道, 在美国如果你在银行里有储蓄, 银行可能给你信用卡代替现款用, 一段时间之后你才加上利息还清. 下面我们作一组代换练习看看美国人常常用信用卡买什么东西, 比方买汽油, 买车票, 戏票, 付账等等.  美国人也用信用卡邮购东西,  也就是  place mail orders, 或是"证明自己的身份 "identify  themselves. 现在我们开始作练习. 请你跟着老师把第一个句子重复一遍, 然后把老师提出的词组代换到原来的句子里, 每作完一句就请你听老师再把句子念一遍. 

   M: People use credit cards to buy a lot of things. 
   M: buy clothes 
   F:  People use credit cards to buy clothes. 
   M: purchase gasoline 
   F:  People use credit cards to purchase gasoline. 
   M: purchase tickets 
   F:  People use credit cards to purchase tickets. 
   M: pay bills 
   F:  People use credit cards to pay bills. 
   M: place mail orders 
   F:  People use credit cards to place mail orders. 
   M: identify themselves 
   F:  People use credit cards to identify themselves. 

   下面我们换一个方式作练习, 一方面复习今天教的语法, 一方面再学一学信用卡的用途, 比方 "买家具"  buy  furnitures,    "订杂志"   subscribe  to  magazines,"订礼物"order gifts 等等.练习的作法是老师念一个被动语态句子,请你用 one, o-n-e, one 作主语把句子改成主动语态说出来.下面就是一个例子:

   M: Credit cards can be used to buy expensive things.
   F:  One can use credit cards to buy expensive things.

   现在我们开始作练习, 每作完一句, 老师就把正确答案念给你听. 

   M: Credit cards can be used to buy expensive things. 
   F:  One can use credit cards to buy expensive things. 
   M: Credit cards can be used to buy furnitures. 
   F:  One can use credit cards to buy furnitures. 
   M: Credit cards can be used to purchase food. 
   F:  One can use credit cards to purchase food. 
   M: Credit cards can be used to purchase airplane tickets. 
   F:  One can use credit cards to purchase airplane tickets. 
   M: Credit cards can be used to pay restaurant bills. 
   F:  One can use credit cards to pay restaurant bills. 
   M: Credit cards can be used to subscribe to magazines. 
   F:  One can use credit cards to subscribe to magazines. 
   M: Credit cards can be used to order gifts. 
   F:  One can use credit cards to order gifts. 

   下面我们再作一组练习, 一方面再学学今天这一课的语法, 一方面也可以学一学在美国人们用信用卡的种种规定,   比方有固定收入的人才可以申请信用卡,顾客用信用卡买东西必须在账单上签名, 除了银行,大商店也可以发信用卡给信用好的顾客等等.    练习的作法是老师念一个有从句的被动语态句子,  比方"申请信用卡的人必须交出他们的财务方面的资料."    People who are applying for a credit card are required to supply their financial information.   请你用商店作主语把句子改成主动语态,  所以答案就是    "商店要求申请信用卡的人交出财务方面的资料."   The store  requires people who are applying for a credit card to supply their financial information. 这组练习里的句子比较长, 请你特别注意听, 每作完一句, 老师会念出正确答案给你听. 

   M: People who have regular incomes are permitted to apply for a credit card. 
   F:  The store permits people who have regular incomes to apply for a credit card. 
   M: People   who   are   applying    for   credit   cards   are  required   to  supply  their  financial information. 
   F:  The  store  requires  people  who  are   applying for credit cards to supply their  financial information. 
   M: People who make regular payments are allowed to use credit cards. 
   F:  The store allows people who make regular payments to use credit cards. 
   M: People who have credit cards are authorized to spend money with them. 
   F:  The store authorizes people who have credit cards to spend money with them. 
   M: Customers who have credit cards are encouraged to use them. 
   F:  The store encourages customers who have credit cards to use them. 
   M: Customers who use credit cards are asked to sign the bills. 
   F:  The store asks customers who use credit cards to sign the bills. 

三.听短文回答问题

   现在我们来作这一课的听力测验.   今天我们要听的文章是介绍美国人用信用卡的情况.文章里不但提到什么是信用卡,为什么许多美国人买东西不用现款,不开支票,  而用信用卡,   文章也解释了用信用卡的种种规定和信用卡的种种用途. 文章里的词汇都是我们以前学过或是刚才练习过的. 现在请你注意听. 

   Americans  spend  a  lot  of  money  in their daily lives.  Working people spend  money on transportation to and from work and on various expenses throughout  the day. Americans enjoy shopping and buy many things that they need and  want. They spend a lot of money on entertainment. They buy sports equipment,  go  to  sporting   events and do many things that cost money.  However, many Americans don't pay cash or write checks for these things. More and more they  pay  for  things  with  credit cards. Credit  cards  are  small, rectangular  plastic cards.  Banks give these cards to their customers. When the customer buys   something at  a store, he  shows  his  card  at  the  store. This  authorizes  the  store  to  charge  the   bank  for   the customer's purchase. The bank collects all the charges for  each customer. Then  once a month the bank requires the customer to pay all the charges for that month. The bank does not force the customer to pay the full amount.  It  allows   the customer to pay for the charges in several payments over  a period of time.  However, the bank requires the customer to pay interest on the unpaid part of the  charges.  In  this  way  the  bank  allows  customers to  buy  things they  cannot  afford at one  time.  People  can  use  the  card  to  buy  what  they  want  and  pay  for  it  over  a  period of time.  They also do not need to carry a lot of money. 

   刚才那篇文章如果你没有全部听懂, 没有关系, 等一会儿你还有机会听.  现在我们先把今天测验的三个问题听一遍. 

   第一个问题是: 
   M: How do Americans pay for things they buy? 
   第二个问题是: 
   M: What is a credit card? 
   第三个问题是: 
   M: What are some of the advantages in using credit cards? 

   现在我请英文老师用慢速度再把整篇文章念一遍. 

   Americans  spend  a  lot  of  money  in their daily lives.  Working people spend  money on transportation to and from work and on various expenses throughout  the day. Americans enjoy shopping and buy many things that they need and  want. They spend a lot of money on entertainment. They buy sports equipment,  go  to  sporting   events and do many things that cost money.  However, many Americans don't pay cash or write checks for these things. More and more they  pay  for  things  with  credit cards. Credit  cards  are  small, rectangular  plastic cards.  Banks give these cards to their customers. When the customer buys   something at  a store, he  shows  his  card  at  the  store. This  authorizes  the  store  to  charge  the   bank  for   the customer's purchase. The bank collects all the charges for  each customer. Then  once a month the bank requires the customer to pay all the charges for that month. The bank does not force the customer to pay the full amount.  It  allows   the customer to pay for the charges in several payments over  a period of time.  However, the bank requires the customer to pay interest on the unpaid part of the  charges.  In  this  way  the  bank  allows  customers to  buy  things they  cannot  afford at one  time.  People  can  use  the  card  to  buy  what  they  want  and  pay  for  it  over  a  period of time.  They also do not need to carry a lot of money. 

   现在请你回答下面三个问题. 每回答一个问题, 老师就会念出正确答案给你听, 让你作个比较,  看你答对了没有. 

   第一个问题是: 
   M: How do Americans pay for things they buy? 
   F:  They pay cash, write checks or use credit cards. 

   第二个问题是: 
   M: What is a credit card? 
   F:  It is a small rectangular plastic card which is used for money. 

   第三个问题是: 
   M: What are some of the advantages in using credit cards? 
   F:  People  can  buy  things  that  they   cannot  afford at  one time. They also do not need  to carry a lot of money.

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