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中级美国英语虚拟语气(一)

所属教程:中级美国英语

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里, 我们学习用助动词 should 和 could 加上 have再加上动词的过去分词作句子来表示跟过去事实相反的情况,   比方  "你昨天不应该开他的车."You shouldn't have driven his car yesterday. 或是"我本来可以到超级市场去."I could have gone to the supermarket. 我们还要学习用助动词 might 或是 must加上have 和动词的过去分词来表示猜测过去发生的事情, 比方 "他昨天可能说了."  He might have said it yesterday.   或是  "他昨天一定到过这儿了."   He must have been here yesterday.

   现在我们还是先听一段对话,内容是说玛丽和彼得到饭馆去吃饭, 结果彼得肚子不舒服. 请你注意听两位英文老师的发音和语调.

   M: Mary, I don't feel too well. I have a stomach ache.
   F:  Well, you shouldn't have eaten all that pizza.
   M: I didn't have that much. Besides it might have been something else that I ate.
   F:  What else did you eat?
   M: I had a salad. Something in the salad could have upset my stomach.
   F:  Maybe, but I had a salad too, and I feel fine. What kind of dressing did you have on your salad?
   M: Just oil and vinegar.
   F:  Then I don't think it was the salad. It must have been the pizza. Anyway,  I hope  you feel better soon.
   M: Thanks, I think I'll lie down for a while.

   现在老师再用慢速度把整段对话念一遍给你听.

   M: Mary, I don't feel too well. I have a stomach ache.
   F:  Well, you shouldn't have eaten all that pizza.
   M: I didn't have that much. Besides it might have been something else that I ate.
   F:  What else did you eat?
   M: I had a salad. Something in the salad could have upset my stomach.
   F:  Maybe, but I had a salad too, and I feel fine. What kind of dressing did you have on your salad?
   M: Just oil and vinegar.
   F:  Then I don't think it was the salad. It must have been the pizza. Anyway,  I hope  you feel better soon.
   M: Thanks, I think I'll lie down for a while.

   现在我把对话里包含了今天要学的语法的句子挑出来,请英文老师再念一遍给你听.

   F:  You shouldn't have eaten all that pizza.
   M: It might have been something else that I ate.
   M: Something in the salad could have upset my stomach.
   F:  It must have been the pizza.

二.SHOULDN'T HAVE

   现在我们开始作练习首先我们练习 shouldn't  have 加上动词过去分词的用法.以前我们学过怎么用 shouldn't 劝人不应该作某件事情.  比方有个朋友在公共汽车上抽烟,你看见了就告诉他: "你不应该在公共汽车上 抽烟." You shouldn't smoke on a bus. 如果你的朋友告诉你, 他昨天在公共汽车上抽了烟, 你认为他昨天不应该抽, 你就说:    You shouldn't have    smoked on a bus.现在我们作第一组练习,学学怎么表示不赞同别人过去作的事情. 在这组练习里你还可以学到一些跟快速食品有关系的词汇, 比方 "牛肉饼店"a hamburgerjoint, "乳酪牛肉饼" cheeseburger,  "意大利馅饼店"  a pizza  parlor 等等.  练习的作法是彼得说出一些过去时态句子,  比方:  " 我去了一家快餐店, 在那儿吃了一个烤牛肉三明治."   I   went  to  a  fast   food  restaurant.  I had a roastbeef sandwich there.   请你用  shouldn't have 加上动词过去分词把句子改成 You
 shouldn't  have  had  a  roastbeef sandwich there. 每作完一句,  老师就会把正确答案念一遍给你听.

   M: I went to a fast food restaurant, I had a roastbeef sandwich there.
   F:  You shouldn't have had a roastbeef sandwich there.
   M: I went to a hamburger joint. I ate a cheeseburger there.
   F:  You shouldn't have eaten a cheeseburger there.
   M: I went to a pizza parlor. I ate 3 pieces of pizza there.
   F:  You shouldn't have eaten 3 pieces of pizza there.
   M: I ate so much.
   F:  You shouldn't have eaten so much.
   M: I had a big meal.
   F:  You shouldn't have had such a big meal.

   下面我们用代换方式练习怎么劝别人在过去应该作某件事. 练习的内容都是说到彼得告诉玛丽他在前一天晚上吃多了肚子疼之后,玛丽劝彼得的话,比方彼得既然吃饱就不应该再吃, 应该小心的选择食物, 肚子疼就应该看大夫,吃药,  躺下来休息等等.  练习的作法是玛丽说一句话,    然后老师会念出一个用过去分词开头的词组, 请你跟玛丽一起把词组代换到原来的句子里.

   F:  You should have stopped eating when you were full.
   M: eaten less
   F:  You should have eaten less.
   M: been more careful about what you ate
   F:  You should have been more careful about what you ate.
   M: chosen the right things to eat
   F:  You should have chosen the right things to eat.
   M: had dinner at home
   F:  You should have had dinner at home.
   M: gone to a doctor
   F:  You should have gone to a doctor.
   M: taken some medicine
   F:  You should have taken some medicine.
   M: lain down and rest
   F:  You should have lain down and rest.

三.MUST HAVE

   下面一组练习是用 must have 加上动词过去分词来表示自己认为过去一定发生的事情. 比方玛丽听说彼得前一天晚上吃那么多就下结论说:当时你一定觉得很不舒服; 你肚子疼一定是吃太多, 太快了, 等等.练习的作法是玛丽说一句话,    然后老师说出一个动词词组请你用动词过去分词作代换练习. 每作完一个句子, 老师就会念出正确答案给你听.

   F:  You must have felt sick.
   M: feel terrible
   F:  You must have felt terrible.
   M: have an upset stomach
   F:  You must have had an upset stomach.
   M: have too much food
   F:  You must have had too much food.
   M: eat something bad
   F:  You must have eaten something bad.
   M: eat too fast
   F:  You must have eaten too fast.

四.COULD HAVE BEEN

   下面我们作一组练习, 学习用could have been 作句子来揣测过去发生的事情.比方玛丽听说彼得吃坏了肚子,    就猜测可能是彼得前一天晚上在饭店吃的东西不干净.  她问彼得许多问题,    彼得都一一的作肯定的答覆.在这组练习里你可以学到美国快餐店常常有的食物和调味品, 比方  "炸薯条"  french fries, "牛奶冰淇淋混合饮料" milkshake 等等.    现在请你注意听玛丽问问题,  并且跟彼得一起做肯定的答复.

   F:  Could it have been the pizza that you had?
   M: It could have been the pizza that I had.
   F:  Could it have been the salad that you had?
   M: It could have been the salad that I had.
   F:  Could it have been the salad dressing?
   M: It could have been the salad dressing.
   F:  Could it have been the roastbeef sandwich that you ate?
   M: It could have been the roastbeef sandwich that I ate.
   F:  Could it have been the cheeseburger that you ate?
   M: It could have been the cheeseburger that I ate.
   F:  Could it have been the french fries?
   M: It could have been the french fries.
   F:  Could it have been the milkshake that you drank?
   M: It could have been the milkshake that I drank?
   F:  Could it have been the coffee that you drank?
   M: It could have been the coffee that I drank.

五.SHOULD + 完成时态

   在下面一组练习里, 玛丽用 should 加上完成时态向彼得提出建议, 比方 "你当时应该慢慢吃." You  should  have  eaten  more    leisurely. 彼得就用 could 加上完成时态回答说: "我当时是可以慢慢吃,可是我没有." I could have eaten moreleisurely, but I didn't. 现在请你注意听玛丽的建议, 并且跟彼得一起回答.

   F:  You should have gone to a more traditional restaurant.
   M: I could have gone to a more traditional restaurant, but I didn't.
   F:  You should have ordered better food.
   M: I could have ordered better food, but I didn't.
   F:  You should have eaten more leisurely.
   M: I could have eaten more leisurely, but I didn't.
   F:  You should have had dinner at home.
   M: I could have had dinner at home, but I didn't.
   F:  You should have cooked something for yourself.
   M: I could have cooked something for myself, but I didn't.
   F:  You should have made a better decision.
   M: I could have made a better decision, but I didn't.

六.MIGHT + 完成时态

   下面我们学习用 might 加上完成时态来揣测过去发生的事情.比方说彼得去快餐店吃饭,排队排了半天一直没有服务员来招呼他; 好不容易来了服务员,彼得叫了菜, 服务员拿来的却不是他要的.下面老师用 maybe 和过去时态作句子揣测发生这种情况的原因, 比方彼得可能站错了队,服务员可能心不在焉,可能把别人叫的菜给了彼得等等,请你改用might 和完成时态把原来的意思表达出来.

   下面就是一个例子:

   M:Maybe Peter stood in the wrong line.
   F: Peter might have stood in the wrong line.

   现在我们开始作练习. 每作完一句, 就请你听老师念正确答案.

   M: Maybe Peter stood in the wrong line.
   F:  Peter might have stood in the wrong line.
   M: Maybe the clerk was busy.
   F:  The clerk might have been busy.
   M: Maybe the clerk was absent-minded.
   F:  The clerk might have been absent-minded.
   M: Maybe the clerk misunderstood him.
   F:  The clerk might have misunderstood him.
   M: Maybe the clerk gave him someone else's order.
   F:  The clerk might have given him someone else's order.

七.听短文回答问题

   今天我们要听一篇介绍美国快餐店的文章. 这篇文章谈到快餐店的种类,特色,跟受美国人欢迎的原因.请你注意听. 等一会儿我们要根据文章内容问你几个问题.

   The favorite food in the United States is the hamburger, a kind of round sandwich of cooked ground beef. The favorite place to buy a hamburger is  a  fast  food  restaurant.  At  fast food restaurants,  people  order  their  food,  wait  a  few  minutes,  and   carry   it   to  their   tables themselves. People also take their food out of the restaurant and eat it in their cars or in their homes.  At some  fast  food restaurants, people can order their food, pay for it and  pick it up without leaving their cars. There are many kinds of fast food restaurants in the United States. The most numerous sell hamburgers,  french  fries  and  milkshakes,  which are  traditionally   popular  foods  among Americans. In addition, fast food restaurants that serve Chinese food,  Mexican  food,  Italian food, chicken, seafood and ice cream are  very numerous. The idea of a fast food restaurant is so popular that nearly every kind of food  can be found in  one. Fast   food  restaurants  are  popular  because  they  reflect American   life  style. First, they are not formal restaurants. Customers wear any type of dress when they go to  a fast food place. Second, they are fast. People who are busy do not want to spend time preparing  their own food or waiting while someone else prepares it. In  fast  food restaurants the food is usually ready before the customer even orders it. Finally, most food in a fast food restaurant is not expensive. Therefore, people  can  afford to eat at a fast food restaurant often, while they may not be able to afford a more traditional and more expensive restaurant very often.

   现在请你回答下面三个问题.每回答一个问题,老师就会念出正确答案给你听.

   第一个问题是:
   M: What kinds of food can people get in fast food restaurants?
   F:  They can get hamburgers, french fries, milkshakes, pizza, chicken, seafood, ice cream and others.

   第二个问题是:
   M: Why do Americans go to fast food restaurants?
   F:  It is because fast food restaurants are fast, informal and inexpensive.

   第三个问题是:
   M: Is the food cooked to order in a fast food restaurant?
   F:  No, it is not.

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